The Builder Magazine
June 1923 - Volume IX - Number 6
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FRONTISPIECE - THE SECOND PYRAMID OF GIZEH?
WHAT I THINK ABOUT THE SHRINE - By Bro. James S. McCandless, Imperial
Potentate A.A.O.N.M.S. for N.A., Hawaiian Islands
OREGON AND THE LITTLE RED SCHOOLHOUSE - By An Oregon Mason
FURTHER LETTERS ON MASONIC EDUCATION - By Two Grand Masters
WORLD-WIDE MASONRY AND ITS DESIRABILITY - By Bro. Oliver Day
BEN FRANKLIN, PATRON OF MANY ARTS - By Bro. James Murray, New York
THE ORIGIN OF THE LEGEND OF THE THIRD DEGREE - By Bro. R. J.
ASPIRATION - Poem By Bro. C. Gordon Lawrence, Canada
MEMORIALS TO GREAT MEN WHO WERE MASONS - WINFIELD SCOTT
SCHLEY - By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M., District of Columbia
THE STUDY CLUB - Chapters of Masonic History - Part IV, Freemasonry and the
Roman Collegia By Bro. H.L. Haywood
EDITORIAL - The Shrine and Its Problems
"The Charm of Fine Manners"
THE LIBRARY - The Infancy and Youth of Scientific Thought
A Jewish Rabbi's Interpretation of the Three Degrees
The Part Played by Jews in the History of American Masonry
THE QUESTION BOX - The Greek Orthodox Church and Freemasonry
Does Kentucky Have Uniform Work ?
Mozart As a Mason
Sir Robert Baden-Powell Not a Mason
CORRESPONDENCE - Masonic Bodies Named for Dr. Kane
Six Brothers Raised in One Evening
Professor Kirsopp Lake Writes About Mithraism
Wise Words About Masonic Architecture
Wanted: Information About Comer Stones
Masonic Lodges of the Cherokee Nation
Freemasonry in Mexico
Tuberculosis Sanatorium Commission Asks for Suggestions
YE EDITORS CORNER
All Articles in this Magazine Copyright 1923 by the National Masonic Research
What I Think About the Shrine
By Bro. JAMES S. McCANDLESS, Imperial Potentate A.A.O.N.M.S. for N.A.,
AS I HAVE GONE ABOUT over the country, I have been asked here and there by
prominent and responsible brethren what is my opinion about solicitation for
membership in the Shrine. Some of these brethren appear to feel that it would be
better if the Imperial Council were to prohibit solicitation in all forms. My answer
invariably is that I am not opposed to the kind of solicitation we permit among
You know that a Mason is not permitted to solicit members for the Blue Lodge. I
sometimes wonder if it would not be better if we did permit this. A young man who
joins our Fraternity and who takes the various degrees and becomes experienced in all
the various Masonic bodies and has worked in close contact with Masons - so many
of whom are the cream of our American manhood - cannot help but become a better
young man than he would be otherwise.
Some of my brother Masons are of the opinion that a certain length of time should
elapse between a man's becoming a member of the Knights Templar or the Scottish
Rite and his admittance into the Shrine. I do not see any point to that argument
whatsoever. What is the difference to anybody whether a man comes in inside of a
month or inside of a few days if he is made of the right material to begin with, if he
has the right mind and comes with the right motive? If the Shrine happens to be the
most companionable and most pleasant place for a young man, he will go there. It
seems to me that if there is to be any friendly rivalry at all among Masonic bodies or
between them and the Shrine, that instead of finding fault with Shriners for having
attractive meetings, these other bodies ought to try to make their meetings more
attractive. Make it worth while for a man to attend a Blue Lodge or a Chapter or a
Council and he will attend!
One of the reasons that I am proud of the Shrine is that it calls the attention of some
of our young Americans to, Masonry and often, perhaps, induces them to seek
admittance to our Order. I say that I am glad of this because I think it is a good thing
and I am happy if the Shrine is an inducement to any young man to become a Mason.
The Shrine is not in any sense a detriment to Freemasonry; in my judgment it is one
of the greatest things which has ever happened to Freemasonry, and I know from my
own personal experience and observation that the great majority of Shriners are the
very highest type of our American manhood. How could this be otherwise? For
consider! No young man can come to us until he has become a member of the Blue
Lodge and also of either the Scottish Rite or the York Rite Bodies. He has been
ballotted on in every one of these organizations and in none of them has he been
found wanting. He comes to us with a clean record; therefore, if there is anything
wrong with a Shriner, it should have been found out long before he reached our gates.
We are not doing anything in any way to hurt Freemasonry. When the Shrine was
started some fifty years or so ago there was some doubt in the minds of Masons then
whether or not the formation of such an organization would prove a detriment or
discredit to the Fraternity. The Shrine was gotten up by a mere handful of men - there
were thirteen of them, as I recall it - in the city of New York, for the purpose of
getting together and having a dinner where good fellows might hold sway; that was
the sole intention of it when founded and it was something with which nobody could
quarrel. Now, this little movement - it was little then - got such a hold on the men
who enjoyed its privileges that they finally established a national organization with a
very beautiful ritual and this gradually grew into the present great A.A.O.N.M.S. with
its Imperial Council, and its almost half a million members.
The Shrine has a creed of its own - Justice, Good Fellowship, Charity, Love of
Country, and, that which is an attribute of the Holy One Himself, Love of One's
Neighbor. These beautiful ideals comprise the teachings of the Shrine.
We have a ceremonial which lends itself to play. Anyone who belongs to the Shrine
and can't be a boy and have a little of God's sunshine in his soul and a lot of clean,
healthy gladness in his heart has no business belonging with us, because the Shrine is
the playground of Masons - you will note I say playground OF Masons, not FOR
A FEW CUT UP PRANKS
Of course, we have a few men with us who cut up pranks and do foolish things and
every other organization has such members in it - the Blue Lodge, the Commandery,
the Scottish Rite - but that is neither here nor there. Every man cannot be a top-
notcher but if anybody supposes that the Shrine permits a lot of unMasonic conduct
on the part of Masons or lets all of its members do just as they please, he is badly
mistaken. In an Order as large as ours, you are sure to find a few men who, out of
thoughtlessness or folly, become guilty of actions of which the rest of us are ashamed
but I do not believe the entire organization should be held responsible for what a few
of its members do. Every time you have a great meeting of men where thousands are
present and all of them are away from home, you are going to have some things
happen which you do not like but I do not see how these things can be avoided.
We in the Shrine are determined to keep our house in order as perfectly as we can.
We have a committee on law and order which functions at all of our national
meetings and it is there for the sole purpose of looking after just such cases as
described above and to see that nothing goes on which will bring discredit upon us or
upon the Masonic Orders from which we emanate. This committee has been in force
for two years now and will be on duty in Washington, D.C., when we meet next
June. Brother A.L. Cameron of Memphis, Tenn., is chairman. I wish to pay a tribute
to the efficient manner in which that committee took care of things in San Francisco.
Out there in that great city on the coast, there was no rowdyism, no misconduct, not
one case in which a man was brought before the committee for censure or expulsion.
At Washington, D.C., this committee will have its own provost guard and it will work
in conjunction with the regular authorities of that city. The city authorities and the
Shrine authorities together will not permit any rough doings on the streets and will
immediately stop anything bordering on vulgarity or indecency. The Washington
meeting of the Shrine is to be the greatest in our history, 1 believe, and I am
confidently expecting that we shall all be proud of the manner in which the great
crowds will be cared for.
To me one of the most beautiful things in all of these meetings, in fact in all our
Shrine meetings, is that we are a common meeting ground for all the various Masonic
Rites; the Scottish Rite Mason, the York Rite Mason and the Blue Lodge Mason
fraternize and learn to be good fellows together in our Temples and meetings. There
are no jealousies or bickerings or contentions amongst us and the sole purpose is that
we may together enjoy good fellowship in that manner which has been famous among
Masons ever since Masonry began to be.
In my own estimation, the greatest work that the Shrine is now undertaking is the
building of our hospitals for poor crippled children. It seems to me that this is the
greatest charity which has ever been undertaken by any fraternal organization in the
entire world. In my heart I know it is the culmination and proof of that which every
Blue Lodge Mason is taught - namely, Charity to all. All the way through the
different degrees of Masonry from that of Entered Apprentice to that of Knight
Templar or Master of the Royal Secret, every Mason is saturated with this great
passion of brotherly love and relief. When Brother W. Freeland Kendrick, who was
Imperial Potentate 1919-1920, brought his proposition for this great work before us,
we were in a proper mood to receive it because we had the spirit of charity in our
THE GREAT DREAM IS NOW BEING REALIZED
Brother Kendrick's great dream is now being realized. Our hospitals are functioning
and that successfully under the direction of a Board of Trustees and this Board has
five orthopedic specialists as an Advisory Board. These brethren, with the help of all
the rest of us, have already authorized ten of these hospitals of mercy; five of them
are now under construction and three of them will have been dedicated before these
words are in print - one in the Twin Cities on April 14th, one in Shreveport, La., on
April 20th and the one in San Francisco in May when I am there.
We are now working in our third year on these hospitals and through assessment of
the members of the Nobility, we have an annual fund of over one million dollars to,
carry on the project. When these ten hospitals are all finished and in working order
they will be a credit not only to the Mystic Shrine but to Freemasonry the world over;
and that fact will make us glad because we are MASONS first - then SHRINERS.
One of the most interesting developments in our crippled children's hospital project
that I know of is the manner in which we are going to handle our hospital service in
Honolulu. When I was elected Imperial Potentate at San Francisco, I got up an
excursion to Honolulu. We had about one thousand of the Nobility on board,
including all the Imperial Officers except two. We also had three members of our
Board of Trustees of the Crippled Children's Hospitals. Some of us Honolulu
Shriners had been troubled to know how we might do our share in caring for our
crippled children in the Hawaiian Islands. Since each of our hospitals costs us from
$250,000.00 to $300,00000, it was out of the question for us to build a hospital
there. Also it was impossible for us to try to transport our crippled children to San
Francisco because that would be too expensive as in many cases the family or part of
it would have to accompany the patient. So we worked out the plan of having a
Mobile Unit of surgeons come to Honolulu for a time. This suggestion was made to
the Board of Trustees and they arranged for it. Dr. Hatt with a staff of five will be in
Honolulu for a period of one year. At every operation, he will invite in the Hawaiian
Doctors to assist him (most of our Honolulu physicians are Shriners) and at the end of
the year, these local physicians will be able to carry on that work in conjunction with
our own local hospital facilities. This unit can function also in Nevada, Arizona and
in the great Northwest.
One of my dreams is that the Knights Templar or the Scottish Rite Bodies or perhaps
both together may follow our lead and erect homes possibly in conjunction with our
hospitals because oftentimes when we have cured the poor little cripples who come to
us we find they have no place in which to live. These children should have a home
and they should be educated and taught how to grow up and become useful citizens in
the world. These children have to be taken care of by somebody and nobody realizes
how many of them there are in the country. Just think of it, my brethren! according to
the records on file with us there are now more than 486,000 of these boys and girls in
the United States alone who need the kind of treatment we are going to give to a few
of them in our hospitals! The only limit we set is that these children must not be over
fourteen years of age. We shall not refuse, however, to take care of any regardless of
age if we can accommodate them. When they come to us we pay all expenses, and
treatment and care in these hospitals is absolutely free.
I like this idea of extending charity to these poor little crippled tots regardless of race,
creed or nationality, or whether they belong to Masonic families. When I pass into
the Great Beyond St. Peter will not ask me whether I gave my charity to the children
of Shriners or to this church or to that or organization; he will ask me how much
charity I gave, regardless.
WHAT ABOUT THE NEGRO SHRINE?
I have been asked many times what we are doing about the so-called Negro "Shrine."
We are working on that problem but I do not believe it is now possible to say
anything very definite about it. The main point is that we are jealous of our name
"Mystic Shrine." We have no quarrel with any other organization at all but we want to
make sure that in North America nobody can make use of our name "Ancient Arabic
Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine," except ourselves. We also are trying to protect
our emblems and insignia and these we have had copyrighted in almost all the states.
I am sorry to say that we cannot copyright the fez because that is a headdress which
any man may wear if he wishes. However, we carry a design on the fez, the famous
crescent, as our own emblem and we are getting that copyrighted in every state. Also,
we are trying to get dealers not to sell fezzes to anyone but Shriners who have their
cards; in fact, we are going still further than that - we are trying to get dealers to sell
these shrine fezzes to Temples only. The dealers helped us in San Francisco to protect
our fezzes and emblems and we trust that the dealers in Washington, D.C., will do the
Some brethren here and there have asked me if I have considered it wise for Shrine
Temples to hold circuses. Now, I am in favor of having a good time but 1 do not want
to see anything that looks like gambling going on or anything of that sort. If we can
have circuses which ladies can attend, I am in favor of them, just as I am in favor of
anything which makes for clean laughter and a good time.
Shriners wear conspicuous costumes and oftentimes they put on parades that attract a
good deal of attention. These things often cause rumors to get started which have no
foundation at all. One of the most notorious instances of these utterly groundless
rumors is the story that a year ago somebody was going to charter a steamship and go
across the Pacific Ocean in order to have one long spree. There was nothing to this
story whatsoever. The Nobility would not go on such a boat.
Let the sun shine for us all! Let there be gladness! Let all men enjoy life while it is
given to them to live! Pass happiness around! Work so as to add to the joy of the
world and to the welfare of man! These are things I believe in. They are things for
which the Shrine stands.
— o —
Oregon and the Little Red Schoolhouse
By AN OREGON MASON
(All publication rights in whole or in part strictly reserved.)
The author of this important contribution was recommended to us by Brother P. S.
Malcolm, 33d, Inspector-General in Oregon, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, and
it was he who suggested that the article appear over a nom de plume. The author is a
prominent professional man whose position has made it possible for him to follow in
detail and at first hand all the developments of the notable struggle to put on the
Oregon statute books the now famous Public School Law. Brother Malcolm, who has
also (as one will learn from the article) actively participated in the campaign and as a
responsible leader, has read and approved the account published herewith, which may
be accepted as an accurate history of a movement about which there has been a deal
of discussion and controversy. All correspondence intended for the author may be
addressed to THE BUILDER. "An Oregon Mason" refers to a group of Blue Lodge
Masons who opposed the Bill. It would be interesting to learn from them their ground
of opposition. Can't one of them furnish us with the contra side of the argument?
IN A DISPATCH recently carried from New York on the wires of a news-gathering
association which serves newspapers in every state of the Union, reference was made
to Oregon's new "anti-parochial school law." It was but one - though rather a notable
one - of a multitude of instances of misrepresentation, through misunderstanding, of
the compulsory public school attendance bill passed by the voters of Oregon at the
election of November 8, 1922.
Oregon has no "anti-parochial school law," nor any school law whose object or
purpose is "anti" anything. It has a law whose plain, affirmative, certain purpose is to
require attendance by all children of grammar school age in the public schools of the
This purpose is completely set forth in the language of the act itself. Its inspiration
and the impelling motive of its original proponents are most clearly summarized in
one of a series of advertisements published during the campaign for the bill by Hon
P. S. Malcolm, 33d, Inspector-General in Oregon, Ancient and Accepted Scottish
Rite. He said:
"The Scottish Rite Masonic bodies are promoting this measure because their members
believe that the hope of America is in its public schools; that if American institutions
are to endure, American children of grammar school age must be taught common
ideals - AMERICAN; that they must be taught in a common language - ENGLISH;
that they must be taught to foster and uphold one set of principles - those of our
American forefathers. They believe that the future of our race, our nation and our
institutions will be perpetuated if ALL our children are so taught, and not otherwise."
There is nothing in this law which need in the least abridge the right of the parent to
give the child whatever kind of religious instruction seems to him best. The law was
conceived as a patriotic measure, as is plainly indicated by the Scottish Rite
declaration quoted in the foregoing. Its proponents raised no issue of religion nor
sought to raise any. An issue of religion was raised in the campaign, but not by them,
as will be explained herein. And the great mass of voters undeniably voted for the law
as a measure of patriotism.
Lrom its inception up to the present the new law has been more misrepresented and
therefore more misunderstood in the nation at large than any other measure ever
enacted in the state of Oregon. The attempt to defeat the bill by misrepresenting its
purpose and its sponsorship failed, but its enemies are still active. They have
announced that they will attack the law in the courts. They are raising an enormous
fund to finance their effort. They have announced that if they are defeated in the court
of first resort they will carry their appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States.
And one of their principal propagandists has advised his auditors at a public meeting,
by undeniable implication, to resist the law forcibly, declaring that "they can't build
jails big enough and often enough to hold you men."
THIS LAW IS STRICTLY MASONIC
Now this article is being written for Masons. To Masons there is a simple, wholly
sufficient and final answer in refutation of the charge that the Oregon public school
compulsory attendance law is a measure of religious repression. This answer is that
the law was conceived by Masons, drafted by Masons and placed on the ballot
through the efforts of Masons. Every Mason knows that the Masonic Order stands
ever for the fullest expression of religious freedom under the fatherhood of God; that
Masonry knows neither religious creed nor religious cult, either to espouse or to
oppose; that back through the ages the voice of Masonry has ever been raised alike
against religious oppression and religious repression, and for the freedom of every
man to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience, and finally that
"we never proselyte."
The inspiration for the Oregon public school compulsory attendance bill came from
the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite for the Southern
Jurisdiction of the United States, which on May 20, 1920, committed itself
unreservedly to the principle of the universal education of children in the public
schools, by adoption of the following resolution:
"Resolved, that we recognize and proclaim our belief in the free and compulsory
education of the children of our nation in public primary schools supported by public
taxation, upon which all children shall attend and be instructed in the English
language only, without regard to race or creed, as the only sure foundation for the
perpetuation and preservation of our free institutions, guaranteed by the Constitution
of the United States, and we pledge the efforts of the membership of this Order to
promote by all lawful means the organization, extension and development to the
highest degree of such schools, and to oppose the efforts of any and all who seek to
limit, curtail, hinder or destroy the public school system of our land."
A month after the adoption of this resolution by the Scottish Rite Supreme Council, it
was endorsed in principle, though not in text and form, by the Grand Lodge of
Oregon, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. Also in June of 1920 the Imperial
Council, Ancient Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, in session in Portland,
endorsed the resolution. Thus by the end of June, 1920, three important major
organizations in Masonry had, from an Oregon standpoint, placed themselves on
record for and as upholding the public schools.
The first definite movement to translate this plain Masonic declaration of principle
and purpose into action was taken upon the occasion of a visit to Portland, early in
1922, by Hon. J. H. Cowles, 33d, Grand Commander for the Southern Jurisdiction of
the Scottish Rite. Commander Cowles held a conference while here with Inspector-
General Malcolm and other prominent Scottish Rite men, and the subject of the
compulsory public school attendance resolution came up. Based upon information
given him, Commander Cowles expressed the opinion, which was concurred in by the
others present, that conditions in this state appeared favorable for initiatory effort
towards the enactment of a law to execute here the purpose of the resolution. The
general body of Blue Lodge Masons was on record through their Grand Lodge
resolutions as being in sympathy with the public school movement; Oregon was
known as a progressive state in matters of legislation, and the initiative and
referendum system of elections in its fullest development was available here. Certain
aggressions on the part of Roman Catholics which affected some of the public
schools, and which will be particularized later in this article, had started people
generally to thinking about the public school question. Recent developments in
naturalization and other courts which had revealed some rather flagrant cases of
nonassimilation of foreign bom persons who had grown up here but had not attended
the public schools, or had attended them but little, had similarly affected the public
thought in regard to the schools. Altogether public sentiment, it was considered, was
ripe for the effort and it was decided at this conference to proceed.
THE OREGON K.C.C.H. TOOK THE LEAD
The conference assigned to the Knights Commander of the Court of Honor of the
Scottish Rite in Oregon the work of placing under way an initiative campaign for a
suitable bill which would carry out the purpose of the movement. Robert E. Smith, of
Portland, headed this committee and organized the preliminary work.
To Judge John B. Cleland, eminent as a jurist, a citizen and a Mason, (he is a Past
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Oregon) was delegated the task of drafting the
bill. His very authorship constituted a guarantee satisfactory to many people of the
legal soundness of the measure, so that when the cry of unconstitutionality was raised
by its opponents - which happened very early in the ensuing campaign - its supporters
declined to register dismay or even serious misgiving. In the view of its friends the
bill was sound and the law is sound. Those who opposed the bill on the ground of
alleged unconstitutionality and who are now declaring that the courts will set the law
aside were its opponents then and are its enemies now.
Stripped of legal verbiage and collateral clauses, this is what the law provides:
"Any parent, guardian or other person in the state of Oregon, having control or charge
or custody of a child under the age of sixteen years and of the age of eight years or
over, at the commencement of a term of public school in the district in which said
child resides, who shall fail or neglect or refuse to send such child to a public school
for a period of time a public school shall be held during the current year in said
district, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and each day's failure to send such child to
a public school shall constitute a separate offense and . . . (the offender) shall, on
conviction thereof be subject to a fine of not less than $5 or more than $100 or to
imprisonment in the county jail not less than two nor more than 30 days, or by
Exceptions are provided for children unable to attend school because of physical
disability, for children who have completed the eighth grade, for children living at a
distance from a school and for children who are being taught by parent or special
instructor and who can satisfy the county school superintendent that such instruction
is standard and sufficient. Under another provision the act is to become effective
September 1, 1926.
Thus, it will be noted, the measure, in addition to being carefully drawn was also
considerately drawn. There is provision for exemption from its terms of all children
on whom it would work hardship. There is provision for deferred effectiveness in
order to allow private and denominational schools time in which to readjust their
affairs. There is the definite single purpose, bluntly stated, that all children shall be
required to attend the public schools. So far as is consistent with this definite object
the law is drawn in liberal terms.
PROMINENT OREGONIANS BACKED THE BILL
Into the work of the initiative campaign now came many prominent men of Oregon;
men known not only for their work in Masonry but also for their standing and
accomplishments in the judicial, official, civic and business life of the state. They
came with enthusiasm and unity of purpose. They wanted to see Oregon become the
first state to stand out openly for the universal Little Red Schoolhouse. They knew
that the fight they were inaugurating would bring down criticism upon them but they
did not falter. They possessed the courage of their convictions.
Prominent among those who engaged in the work of preparing and circulating the
petitions for the initiative was Ira B. Sturges, of Baker. His name headed the formal
list of initiators printed upon the petitions. Others were: Dr. Robert C. Ellsworth,
Pendleton; Harold Baldwin, Prineville; W. B. Daggett, Redmond; Lewis H. Irving,
Madras; Collin E. Davis, The Dalles; Leslie G. Johnson, Marshfield; C. A. Swope,
Grant's Pass; W. F. Harris, Roseburg; John R. Penland, Albany; J. R. Jeffery, Seaside;
F. C. Holibaugh, St. Helens; O. O. Hodson, McMinnville and E. L. Johnson,
Hillsboro. All of them are Scottish Rite Masons. All of them are prominent in the life
of Oregon. The personnel of the sponsorship was in itself a guarantee of the sincerity
of the cause.
Within twenty- four hours after the circulation of the initiative petitions had begun
simultaneously in every district of Oregon, more than the 28,000 names required to
assure the measure a place on the ballot had been obtained. A check of the signatures
made in the office of the Secretary of State at Salem showed some 35,000 valid
signatures. The spontaneity o f the response surprised even the friends of the bill and
left its opponents gasping. Friends and foes alike of the measure realized that such a
response could mean only one thing - that there was a demand for the proposed
legislation sufficient to make the movement formidable.
The campaign, directed by Inspector-General Malcolm and carried out through an
organization known as the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite School Committee,
headed by George B. Cellars, a Knight Commander of the Court of Honor, was
affirmative, able and forceful. It was confined strictly to the issue presented in the bill
- that of the necessity for enacting a law which would insure the education on
standard lines and on common ground in the public schools of all children of
grammar school age. There were no attacks on parochial schools or other
denominational or private schools in the arguments put forth. There was nothing
defensive in anything offered by the committee, which maintained the high ground
throughout that the bill, being a thoroughly meritorious one' needed no defense. In
newspaper advertisements, in circulars and by word of mouth the campaigners put
forth everywhere the message of Inspector-General Malcolm which has already been
quoted in the foregoing, with elaborations and correlative facts and arguments in
support of the bill. Never was the religious issue raised by the Scottish Rite during the
campaign. Mr. Malcolm steadfastly ignored efforts which were made to involve him
in religious controversy.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS TAUGHT BY NUNS
But organizations outside t he Scottish Rite which flocked to the support of the bill
after it had been launched did campaign the religious issue. One of the things done by
some of these was to set before the public generally the facts already referred to in
this article, regarding certain Roman Catholic activities affecting the public schools.
It was m ad e known that in five public school districts of Oregon every teacher was a
Catholic nun. These districts were, like all public school districts, supported by
general taxation of all their property owners. But majorities of the residents of these
districts were heavily Catholic. These Catholic majorities elected Catholic boards of
directors and they in turn hired the nuns as teachers. Protestants who objected had no
recourse. They must, under the law, send their children to school, and the only
schools available were those taught by nuns.
In some districts this condition had existed for a number of years, and in others it was
of recent origin. A photograph was widely circulated and published in circulars and
advertisements showing the pupil-body of a school in Washington county grouped in
front of their school building, with two Catholic sisters, their teachers, among them.
Circulation of this photograph had a decided effect.
Here, so far as the public school compulsory attendance bill was concerned, was an
issue wholly extraneous because the condition exposed would not be affected either
by the passage or the defeat of the measure. Yet the campaign on this feature of the
situation made many votes for the school bill. And there was a further erect: in the
first legislative session following the campaign a law was passed prohibiting the
wearing of any religious garb whatsoever by any teacher in any public school of
It is a peculiar fact that, with possibly one or two exceptions, no organization
supported the bill with unanimity throughout its membership. In the Scottish Rite
itself there was a small minority of dissenters. Blue Lodge Masons were divided.
While many of the most influential voices in Oregon Masonry were raised in its
support, a few equally influential ones were lifted against it, including that of Hon
George G. Brown, of Salem, Grand Master for Oregon. Undoubtedly the great
majority of Oregon Masons voted for the bill, but there was an opposing minority
respectable in its proportions and worthy of respect in its personnel.
VARIOUS CHURCHES OPPOSED THE BILL
Most Protestant church memberships showed similar division of sentiment regarding
the bill. The Lutheran church organization opposed the bill, because it maintains
sectarian schools of its own. Certain supporters of the bill brought out during the
campaign that Lutheran schools had existed in Oregon wherein all the teaching was
done in German. English was never spoken there. It may be conceded that Lutherans
quite generally, if not unanimously, opposed the bill. So, probably, did the Seventh
Day Adventists. While the Episcopal church organization opposed the measure
strongly, there can be no doubt that many members of that church supported it. At
Corvallis, where a session of the Oregon Presbytery was held while the campaign was
in progress, twenty-five Presbyterian ministers signed a resolution of opposition to
the bill and this was heralded forth as an official action, but so many other
Presbyterians, lay and ministerial, set up a clamor of protest that the only conclusion
the public could reach was that the Presbyterian church was divided on the subject, as
most other organizations were. The question of support of or opposition to the bill
was quite generally a matter of individual judgment and conscience. And the result
showed that 1 1,821 more Oregon voters judged and decided in favor of the bill than
opposed it. The official vote was: Ayes, 1 15,506; Noes, 103,685.
But notwithstanding that Oregon is on record as standing for the universal Little Red
Schoolhouse, through enactment of this law, the battle is not over. Interests which
opposed the bill, headed lay the Knights of Columbus, have announced that they will
attack the law in the courts. Archbishop Alexander Christie, of Oregon, and Frank J.
Lonergan, head of the Knights of Columbus organization in this state, recently made
a trip to Washington and New York to help organize this proposed attack. Backing
them are other denominational and private school interests.
While the ground of this proposed attack will undoubtedly be an allegation of
unconstitutionality of the law its exact line and scope have not been made known.
Undoubtedly its basis will be the same as that cited, during the campaign by
opponents of the bill in their charges of unconstitutionality which is that of the first
amendment to the Federal Constitution and second, third and fourth articles of the
Bill of Rights of the state of Oregon. The constitutional amendment reads:
"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting
the free exercise thereof; or abridge the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right
of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the government for a redress of
And sections numbered 2, 3 and 4 of the Bill of Rights of the Constitution of Oregon,
"Sec. 2. Freedom of Worship - All men shall be secured in the natural right to
worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences.
"Sec. 3. No law shall in any case whatever control the free exercise and enjoyment of
religious opinion or interfere with the rights of conscience.
"Sec. 4. No religious test shall be required as a qualification for any office of trust or
When Judge Cleland drafted the Oregon bill he knew all about the amendment quoted
and the Bill of Rights as well. He so drafted the bill that, in his opinion and in the
opinion of other eminent attorneys with whom he conferred, it did not in the least
conflict with any of the prohibitions quoted. Both the affirmation for and the
contention against the legality of the bill have been backed by attorneys of standing
and reputation as lawyers.
A MICHIGAN CASE IS CITED.
In support of their contention the opponents of the bill cite as a precedent a Michigan
case of October 1, 1920, wherein the Secretary of State had denied a place on the
ballot on the ground of alleged unconstitutionality to a compulsory public school
attendance hill. A mandamus action was brought and a majority of five judges of the
Supreme Court granted the mandamus on the ground that the Secretary of State, a
ministerial officer, was not the judge of the constitutionality of the act. A minority of
three judges went outside of this question and handed down a decision, written by
Justice Fellows, who said:
"While the proposed amendment is very carefully worded to attract votes, it takes
from the parent the privilege of educating his children in parochial or private schools;
indeed it takes from them the right to exercise any control over the education of their
own offspring and gives such right to the state. It prohibits the conduct of the business
of educating children by private parties, denominations and corporations, organized
for that purpose under our laws, and takes from them without compensation the right
to use for educational purposes property owned by them and devoted to that use,
admitted to be worth seventy millions of dollars.
"Some 120,000 children between the ages of 5 and 16 years are now being educated
in the parochial schools of the state. The instructions cover the usual branches taught
in the public schools, and in addition there is moral training and the doctrine of the
Christian religion is inculcated in these youthful minds. That these schools may be
regulated by the state is admitted on all hands, but that their existence may be
prohibited by state mandate is an entirely different proposition. Before the bossiness
of educating the young in the same course taught by the public schools, before the
business of educating the young in the Christian religion, before the business of
conducting these parochial schools, can be outlawed and prohibited, their prohibition
mast bear some reasonable relation to the public good, or the public health, or the
public morals, or the public safety or the public welfare. The right to regulate I
concede; the right to prohibit 1 deny."
This minority decision is to be cited by the opponents of the Oregon law in bringing
their own case.
Just what is in the minds of the law's opponents to do in case they lose their case, as
friends of the Oregon law believe they will, had not been generally indicated, but
what one of the chief Facials of the Knights of Columbus would do is indicated by his
own words. On a recent visit to Portland, Joseph Scott of Los Angeles, heralded as "a
Knight of St. Gregory in recognition of his world services for Catholicism," addressed
a large gathering of Knights of Columbus and said, in the course of his remarks:
"We expect you men here to defend your homes against those who, masquerading as
so-called Americans, are none else than dyed-in-the-wool hypocrites. We'll expect
you not to give any quarter and to adopt a no-temporizing attitude in dealing with this
type of scrub. They are an ignorant, unintelligent set of mercenary scoundrels and
grafters. Their doctrines are against the real principles of Americanism and our
conceptions of our duties to state, nation, church and family cannot but make us
antagonistic to them."
This incident is not given here as purporting to show a general trend of thought
among opponents of the school law, Catholic or Protestant. Indeed, this writer will
say frankly that he does not believe such sentiments are held or backed by any
considerable proportion of the membership even of the Knights of Columbus, who
are, in their great preponderance, law-respecting and law-abiding. But the incident
does show how one high official of the Knights of Columbus thinks and how he talks.
And the picture he presents is not pretty.
— o —
"All good Masons are peaceable subjects to the powers that be, and never suffer
themselves to be concerned in plots and conspiracies against the peace and welfare of
the nation, to behave undutifully to the lawful authorities, or countenance a brother in
his rebellion, though he may be pitied as an unhappy man." Selected.
— o —
FURTHER LETTERS ON MASONIC EDUCATION
The Education of the Heart Is Necessary
The education of Masons in Masonry involves a consideration of fundamentals and
the beginning of Masonic life and experience. There we learn that we are first
"prepared to be made Masons in our heart." It was not a physical or a mental
preparation, but an emotional one in the truest sense of that word. Then we were
hoodwinked that "our hearts might be taught to conceive before our eyes beheld the
beauties of Masonry." Thus the beginning of our Masonic education was in the heart,
as distinguished from the head. "With the heart man believeth unto righteousness," so
with the heart man commences his education in Masonry.
What is meant by heart education? Our fathers as Operative Masons worked in the
tangible, the concrete, and in the material, while we in the present day work as
Speculative Masons. It is not the power of arriving at certain conclusions and thus
governing ourselves accordingly: it is rather that responsive faculty of our being
which seeks some indefinite object which can alone meet its needs and desires and
then accept that as the sum total of life.
We devote considerable time and attention to the education of the other faculties such
as the will, imagination, and mental and physical powers, but devote only a limited
amount of time to the education of the heart. This results in many men with small
hearts, devoid of broad and generous impulses. It produces men with cold hearts and
never with tender affection - hearts as cold as marble and lacking in love and
The education of the heart involves two steps. First, fellowship with the principles of
Masonry. This requires a mastery and understanding of the ritual and fellowship with
brethren in both public and private life, and in addition the taking part in all of the
work within the lodge. Second, service to man. Work in this field enlarges the heart
and consecrates life with a new gladness and a different viewpoint. A large and noble
heart comes through companionship and service, and the best way to educate Masons
is by constant companionship with Masons and their principles and service for
Masonry and the world.
In carrying out this plan, the Grand Lodge of North Dakota has established a
committee on Masonic Service and Education, consisting of five members. This
Committee selects an Executive Secretary, whose duties are to oversee the Masonic
Education programs of the state. He is to visit each lodge sometime during the year,
assist the lodges in arranging their programs of Masonic service, and arrange for
speakers to deliver various bulletins issued by the Masonic Service Association of the
United States, and in addition, to assist each lodge in working out some plan of
Masonic service during the year to bring about a betterment of community life in
Edwin A. Ripley, Grand Master, North Dakota.
Study Classes and Lectures Should Be Used
The best way to educate Masons in Masonry is to hold before the initiated and newly
made Mason seriously the ideals for which the Fraternity stands. This is best
accomplished by a serious and reverent attitude in the conferring of the degrees. Then
some time should be set apart to a serious study of the meaning attached to the
symbolism of the Craft, and this should be presented to the members of the lodge
through lectures by well informed brethren or study classes where the members shall
meet and take up in detail one after another the ceremonies and symbols as they are
presented in the degrees, beginning with their earliest esoteric meaning and follow
them through the ages up to a consideration of their present significance. If this can
be consistently carried out and the brethren discouraged from applying for so called
"higher degrees," Masons will become Masons in truth as well as lodge members.
Edward P. Hufferd, Grand Master, Colorado.
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World-Wide Masonry and Its Desirability
By Bro. OLIVER DAY STREET, Alabama
WE READ in our Monitors and in the effusions of Masonic orators of the
"Universality of Masonry," and how that Masonry “unites men of every country, sect
and opinion." We are told that in the great cities, that in the depths of the forests of
Africa and South America, that on the vast steppes of Asia, and on the plains and
deserts of Arabia, Masons are to be found everywhere, and ready to make themselves
known by the familiar words, signs and tokens, and to extend succor and relief even
at the peril of their own lives. We stare, and our bosoms heave with pride that we
belong to so beneficent and so universal a brotherhood. It is a beautiful fiction which
it is a pity to destroy, but the lamentable fact is there is not a word of truth in it.
Many of you will, therefore, be shocked and disappointed when I tell you that there is
not and never has been and, if many of our most estimable brethren can have their
way, there never will be universal Masonry. Many of the greatest regions and
peoples of earth are utterly destitute of Freemasonry, while the Masonry which exists
among many others is repudiated and denied by each other and by the Masonry of the
English speaking countries. Some Grand Lodges admittedly recognize only those
grand bodies which speak English; others while not professing this standard, made it
good in practice. Some draw a line on those which do not quite agree with them on
some religious dogma or as to just how far Masonry may take part in the political
questions of the day, or on some rule of mere practice or policy on which uniformity
has never existed among the recognized Masonic bodies. The most trivial and absurd
difference in either doctrine or practice is seized upon by some Grand Lodge, which
imagines it is the conservator of pure and unadulterated Freemasonry, to erect
impassable barriers between the Masonic bodies of the world. Among the most
rancorous disputes that the world has ever witnessed are those that have raged over
questions of minor or no importance. Only the disputes among the religious sects and
denominations can be compared to them.
The intolerance on the part of many Masons and Masonic bodies towards others
claiming to be Masonic is so extreme that they frown even on any suggestion of
getting acquainted or of even conferring together. So illiberal is this attitude of
aloofness that nearly all of our American Grand Lodges would draw their Pharisaical
robes around them and spurn with contempt any suggestion of a World Masonic
Conference, or any other movement which would bring together with them Masons or
bodies which they have not already formally recognized as legitimate and regular
Freemasonry. In other words, we will have nothing to do with men or organizations
which are not already perfect according to our standards and which consequently
already need no help from us and from whom of course we ourselves need no help.
Self sufficient in our own conceit, we will not admit that we can learn anything of
value from the Masons of other countries and in our smug complacency we say that
the are "impossible" as Masons. It is precisely the same mental attitude of Greek
toward barbarian, Ancient Hebrew toward Gentile, Pharisee toward Samaritan, which
we so unsparingly condemn in others, but which we, (as-they), can not see in
THIS IS NOT A DESIRABLE CONDITION
All will admit that this is not a desirable condition, all are hoping that it may be
changed, but every one is demanding and expecting that this change shall be wrought
by everybody else conforming to his views of what is correct. This ignorant and
narrow provincialism will forever prevent the Masons of the world getting together.
Until we recognize that, though we may be right, yet others who differ from us may
not be wrong; till we concede the possibility that, while in the main right, we may,
nevertheless, be in a measure wrong; till we admit that, while they err in some
respects, in the main they may be right; till we can realize that there are two sides to
every question that arises between sincere and honorable men; till we are willing to
get acquainted with our Masonic neighbors, to learn and attempt to understand their
point of view, to put ourselves in their places, to meet them for mutual study of each
other, to exercise that truly Masonic virtue of charity, we must dismiss all hopes of a
real world-wide Masonic fraternity.
If we differ with them as to the Masonic necessity of a declaration of a belief in
Deity, we must be prepared to admit that there are two sides to this question, when we
see such men among us as Louis Block of Iowa, George W. Baird of the District of
Columbia, William F. Kuhn of Missouri, Sam Henry Goodwin of Utah, and James A.
Bilbro of Alabama, taking directly opposite positions on the question. We must be
willing to meet and discuss this question with them, and maybe we shall find we are
not so far apart after all.
If we see that differences of view as to the nature of the Deity are keeping us apart,
we must first be prepared to admit that there are not only two but many sides to this
question, since we see scarcely any two of our ablest Masonic scholars agreeing on
it. Indeed we see the greatest theologians and philosophers differing upon it as they
have always differed. Perhaps we should find by approaching this question in an
open frame of mind that Masonry does not prescribe what one's beliefs shall be as to
the attributes of Deity.
If we find that opinions as to the presence of the Bible on the altar are separating us,
we might remember that the Bible was not a part of the paraphernalia of the lodge for
nearly a half century after the founding of the Grand Lodge of England, and that even
today it is not on the altar of the British lodges but on the Master's pedestal, and that
the Grand Lodge of England, admits that the Koran, or the Vedas, or the Zend Avesta
may be used in place of the Bible.
If views as to the office of the Bible in lodge separate us, if some insist that Masons
must believe all its teachings, while others claim it is displayed as a symbol of divine
truth, we must be prepared to admit that there is room for difference here, since we
continue to admit as Masons men who do not accept any part of the Bible and many
others who reject at least one-half of it.
WHAT IF POLITICAL DIFFERENCES DIVIDE US?
If we draw the line on those who, we think, engage in polities let us imagine, if we
can, what the Masonic Fraternity of the United States would do if some party were to
arise in this country which openly declared against free speech, freedom of the press,
freedom of thought, freedom of conscience, and in favor of domination of the State
by the Church. If Masonry did not fight such propositions it would perish, yet these
are precisely the propositions which confront Masonry in France, Belgium, Spain,
Italy, and in all South and Central American nations, not to mention Mexico and
numerous other countries. There are certain great fundamental political questions
which Masonry always and everywhere has professed and for which, if it is not
willing to fight, it is not worthy to exist. A little serious investigation might show that
the political activities of the Masonry which we condemn in other countries is no
more than precisely what we should and would do under the same circumstances.
As Foreign Correspondent I have frequent occasions to observe the extreme
narrowness sometimes manifested on this question. Let me illustrate with one
A certain very able Reviewer in an English speaking country was horrified and
astonished when the Grand Orient of Italy invited the Grand Lodges of the world to
participate with it in the celebration of the victory of Italy in 1870 over the Pope of
Rome and the consequent downfall of the papacy as a temperal power in Italy. This
distinguished brother thought that for such "meddling in polities" the Grand Orient
should be cast into outer darkness and utterly excluded from the Masonic pale.
I think any philanthropic, charitable or fraternal organization anywhere in the world
may with the greatest propriety join in the celebration of so distinct a step in advance
taken by humanity. Should any Grand Lodge of the United States of America which
dares to celebrate the Fourth of July be excluded from the Masonic pale? Would there
be any impropriety in the Grand Lodge of England, or any other Grand Lodge or
Grand Orient, celebrating the signing of Magna Charta, or the granting of the English
Bill of Rights, or the disestablishment of the Church anywhere as a political or
governmental agency? Could Masons not with propriety observe the birthday of
Martin Luther, or of John Knox, or of John Wycliffe? Why may they not celebrate the
victories of Oliver Cromwell, or the burning of Savonarola, or Joan of Arc, or the
flight of Roger Williams, or of the Pilgrim Fathers, or of the French Huguenots from
religious persecution? We as Masons make much of George Washington in this
country and even in England. Is any one so simple as to believe this is not chiefly
because he was a great and successful warrior and a wise statesman - politician, if you
please? Why may not Masons as such take public pride in the successful attempt of
the politicians of any people anywhere to separate Church and State? Or to shake off
the shackles which either Church or State has attempted to fasten upon freedom of
thought, freedom of speech, freedom of conscience, or freedom of action? If Masons
may not do these things what may they do besides confer degrees and bestow alms?
WHAT ABOUT DOCTRINE OF EXCLUSIVE TERRITORIAL JURISDICTION?
If a refusal to admit the doctrine of exclusive territorial jurisdiction in our eyes
renders a Grand Lodge anathema, we should remember that at the beginning this
doctrine was nowhere recognized and that today it is not recognized at all in many
countries and recognized only as a wise and sound policy in others. In several
countries two or more systems exist in perfect harmony alongside each other. Should
not these facts give us pause and suggest that in this question is involved nothing of
principle that ought to keep Masons apart? It is possible that by frank discussion we
might be able, to show our brethren of other countries the wisdom and advantages of
Grand Lodges of so-called Ancient Craft origin often refuse to recognize those of
Scottish Rite origin because no one has ever been able to give a convincing account
of the regularity of origin of Scottish Rite Masonry. But it should be remembered
that, though we can carry the history of Ancient Craft Masonry nearly a hundred
years further back than we can that of the Scottish Rite, yet the regularity of the origin
of Modern Ancient Craft Masonry can no more be shown than can that of the Scottish
Rite. There are at least plausible grounds for belief that the Scottish Rite is but a
development from the Ancient Craft. Possibly by getting together and talking it over
the Scottish Rite Supreme Councils and Scottish Rite Masons generally might be
convinced of the wisdom of adopting the plan so successfully adopted in the United
States, England and some other countries of not interfering with the first three or
symbolic degrees but leaving them to the exclusive jurisdiction of Grand Lodges.
One may ask, "Is Masonic Universality desirable, will it be productive of any benefits
or advantages?" To ask this question is to challenge the value of Freemasonry
altogether, to question whether it is worth while at all, for if it is good for one man it
is good for all men, and if it is not good for all it is worthless for any. It also denies
the truism that "in union is strength." I believe no intelligent Mason can be found who
will deny the desirability of a world-wide Fraternity teaching and practicing the
doctrines we profess.
One may then ask, "How are the conditions above pointed out to be corrected?" Our
answer is, not by the methods we have been employing, not by refusing to have any
communication with each other, not by standing aloof and denouncing each other, not
by regarding as contaminating or unclean Masons and Masonic bodies merely
because upon some one or all of these questions they differ from us.
SOME SOLUTIONS ARE SUGGESTED
First, we would suggest that the International Masonic Association, at Geneva,
Switzerland, be supported and developed until it becomes as it was planned to be, a
real center from which can be secured Prompt and reliable information concerning all
Masonic movements and activities on the continent of Europe especially.
Secondly, we already have in the National Masonic Research Society, of Iowa, an
organization that might be made to perform a like service in this country. Or if this
Society is not well adapted or well located for the purpose one could be easily
devised. The principal thing would be to provide the financial support and the men
equal to the task and tell them to go to work in their own way to get the information,
Thirdly, our Committees on Foreign Correspondence should endeavor to get facts and
lay them before their respective Grand Lodges rather than revamping half-baked
opinions founded on fragmentary or false information. Preconceived opinions, or
opinions of a past generation, should be laid aside and the whole question examined
Fourthly, intelligent Masons visiting foreign countries should be encouraged to visit
the lodges there and get first-hand information, instead of being forbidden to do so as
is now the rule. Occasionally, carefully selected delegations night be sent for this
purpose. The information procured by these means should be given free publicity.
All this would cost some money, it is true, but not more than could be easily
provided. Fifthly, a World Congress of Freemasons should be held periodically, say
every five years, without any legislative powers but authorized only to discuss and
express opinions on Masonic questions.
The first of such congresses should be held in England as the oldest Masonic country,
or in the United States as the one having the greatest number of Masons. The list of
Grand Bodies invited should, while being carefully selected, not be too restricted. It
should be distinctly understood that invitation to and participation in the congress was
not the equivalent of recognition. It should not be lost sight of that the main purposes
of the congress were to get acquainted with each other, to provide opportunity for
discussion and exchange of ideas, and the securing and imparting of information.
I am well aware that some brothers will raise their hands in horror and say that I am
suggesting a Universal Grand Lodge. That cry has killed every movement for
Masonic solidarity that has ever been suggested, but this scarecrow has long enough
prevented cooperation among Masons. I am as much opposed to a General, or
Supreme, or Universal Grand Lodge as are these brethren, but I can see the difference
between such a body and one convened merely for conference and discussion.
finally, we must rid ourselves of the self-righteous idea that by having any
communication or association with Masons or Masonic bodies not already recognized
as regular, we render ourselves unclean. We shall not be hurt Masonically socially, or
morally, by meeting and discussing Masonry with men whom we may never
technically recognize as Masons.
If the dream of Universal Masonry is ever to be realized a beginning must be made.
Brethren and Masonic bodies must be found of sufficient vision to take the lead and
of sufficient perseverance and courage to keep the movement moving. We believe
that a few years of effort along the lines we have indicated would result in a much
better understanding among the Masonic bodies of the world.
— o —
Ben Franklin, Patron of Many Arts
By Bro. JAMES MURRAY, New York
Franklin is easily the greatest figure of this continent prior to the Revolutionary War,
and since then none but Washington and Lincoln have arisen to dispute his solitary
eminence. After the fashion of some unexpected development in Nature, he appeared
among the Colonists like a visitor from another star, the first humanist of America,
and the first humorist, a great towering soul who believed in life and tried to let the
light shine. The author of this essay has caught something of the blithesome spirit of
his subject, for the which we may each one be grateful, seeing that in these days of
world desolation and regret, Franklin's indomitable and happy spirit is not the least of
the many treasurers we have need of from the past.
AT THE BICENTENNIAL celebration of the birth of Benjamin Franklin more than
seventy wreaths were placed on his statue in Printing House Square, Park Row, New
York, by organizations and industries, including the Grand Lodge of New York, to
which Franklin had made unique contributions. How wonderful is the man whom no
less than seventy organizations claim as their own! To each he had given something
so vital and so necessary that on his two hundredth birthday anniversary they
delighted to do him honor! What a heritage with which to endow posterity! Surely,
such a life is well worth the attention that his celebration has created.
The Autobiography, which so inimitably tells the story of his earlier years, ranks, in
the charm, vividness and simplicity of its faultless style, among the few masterpieces
of English prose. The author catalogs with astonishing frankness the mistakes of his
youth, not with any pleasure in the recollection of them, but in the hope of saving
others from similar slips. The pages of the Autobiography are still the best source
from which to refresh one's knowledge of this period of Franklin's career. The
modern writer had best go forward as speedily as possible to the point where his
public services began.
At the tender age of ten he was taken from school to assist his father in the business
of a tallow chandler and soap boiler, a trade that he greatly disliked. At the age of
twelve he was apprenticed to his brother, a printer. Although this work was much
more congenial, he met with such discouragement, abuse and disappointment that he
ran away and we next find him seeking independent employment at his trade, first in
Philadelphia and later in London. The boy printer, the runaway apprentice, the young
journeyman, friendless, penniless and far from home in these distant cities, are
pictures that have been made familiar to many generations of American readers.
On returning to Philadelphia, Franklin bought the Pennsylvania Gazette and by
judicious management was able to discharge, by installments, his indebtedness. As
he prospered financially, he suggested and carried forward scheme after scheme of
civic improvement. These public spirited activities secured for him the attention and
influence that follow success in practical affairs and caused him shortly to be
regarded as one of the foremost citizens of his adopted city.
To further his schemes he was fond of organizing men into associations and
developed a singular aptitude for creating, conducting and perpetuating such bodies.
Among others, the Junto, a select club, which was a power in local affairs, was the
child of his brain. It was a paper which he read before this body on the lack of
organization in Philadelphia for extinguishing fires that led to the formation of the
Union Fire Company. Years later, Franklin boasted with pride that the "city had
never lost by fire more than one or two houses at a time," and that "the flames have
often been extinguished before the house in which they began had been half
The example of Franklin, like that of Lincoln, will ever be an inspiration to the home
student. He deliberately trained himself in English composition and the ability to
write he thus acquired gave him not only his entrance into polities but much of his
success as a philosopher and statesman. Poor Richard's Almanac became a pulpit
from which Franklin preached to a multitude. The epigrams of Poor Richard are as
renowned as any collection in English literature. His political and social satires bear
comparison with those of the greatest satirists. In a word, Franklin, from his earliest
days, was a born teacher of men and ranks among the world's most distinguished
moralists. But, though an earnest preacher of morality, he was never identified with
any religious organization. The fact that he was a Freemason relieves him of the
charge of having been an atheist. He possessed the rarest kind of tolerance and
accommodated himself easily to the customs of his associates but, in the end, and
after much meditation, he formulated a creed of his own.
His first public office came to him in 1736 when he was chosen clerk of the General
Assembly. This post he continued to occupy for fourteen years when he was elected
a member. In 1737, he was appointed postmaster of Philadelphia, an office which he
found, as he says, "of great advantage, for though the salary was small it facilitated
the correspondence that improved my newspaper." The postmaster general of the
Colonies recognized Franklin's practical ability by employing him as "his controller
in regulating the several offices and bringing the officers to account" and when, in
1753, the postmaster general died, Franklin became his successor.
Amid the crowding occupations of these busy years Franklin found time for the
scientific research toward which heart always yearned. Besides entrapping the
lightning from the clouds with his kite, he performed countless other experiments and
wrote treatises upon them which, collected into a volume, "made no small stir in
France and were taken much notice of in England."
In his Autobiography, he records with just pride that he received the degree of Master
of Arts first from Yale College and afterwards from Harvard. "Thus without studying
in any college," he says, "I came to partake of their honors. They were conferred in
consideration of my improvements and discoveries in the electric branch of natural
philosophy." The Universities of St. Andrew, Edinburgh and Oxford, in succession,
later conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws in recognition of his
diplomatic services in Great Britain.
Franklin's head was never turned by the many honors that he received and he did not
hesitate when opportunity offered to make a joke at his own expense. One of his
electrical experiments was an attempt to kill a turkey by shock. He himself received
the full effect of the electrical discharge and he was rendered unconscious. When
restored his first remark was, "Well, I meant to kill a turkey and instead I nearly killed
In 1764 the Pennsylvania Assembly selected him for an important mission to Great
Britain and the Colony also appointed him their agent. Such was his industry and
success that year by year Pennsylvania reappointed him. Later Massachusetts, New
Jersey and Georgia in succession voted him their agent. Thus for some years he
represented no less than four of the American Colonies. His life in London as
Colonial Agent brought him into contact with England's leading men and with many
distinguished foreigners from continental Europe with results the importance of
which can scarcely be magnified. His new duties not only trained him in diplomacy
but immeasurably broadened his horizon. In his Autobiography Franklin remarks that
his father used often to quote the proverb, "A man who is diligent in business shall
stand before kings." He adds with pardonable pride that he had "stood before four
kings and dined with three of them." When the Stamp Act was introduced in the
English Parliament and the shadow of the Revolutionary War began to fall over the
Colonies, the figure of Franklin stood sole and unique among the Colonists as a
master of diplomacy and international affairs. As a statesman he sought to find
means whereby amicable relations between the Mother Country and the Colonies
could be maintained. He labored unweariedly to prevent a breach. But his opposition
to the policy of the British ministry began with their earliest attempts to tax the
Colonies. To a friend he wrote: "Depend on it, my good neighbor, I took every step
in my power to prevent the passing of the Stamp Act. Nobody could be more
concerned than I to oppose it sincerely and heartily." But he was not yet ready to part
with old lamps for new ones. He wrote: "At heart I am no revolutionist. I believe in
purifying, not in breaking down. I would to God that 1 could have convinced the
British of their error."
In those days of agitation, he was still the philosopher and sage and his views were
far in advance of his times. "All wars are follies," he maintained, "very expensive
and very mischievous ones." "When will mankind," he asked, "be convinced of this
and agree to settle their differences by arbitration?"
His departure marked an era in the relations of Great Britain and her American
colonies. All hope of agreement, all possibility of reconciliation upon one side, or of
recession upon the other, was absolutely over when Franklin shook from his feet the
dust of the Mother Country. That he gave up in despair of maintaining peace meant
that war was certain and imminent.
He arrived in Philadelphia, May 5, 1775, and, two months later, formulated the first
plan for the confederation of the Colonies to be presented to Congress. Then for
eighteen months he toiled in the domestic service of his country. Useful as were his
labors at home, however, his presence as a trained negotiator, schooled by fourteen
years of the most difficult kind of diplomatic service, was indispensable abroad, and
in September, 1776, he was elected envoy to France. The wisdom of this choice and
the estimate set by Europe upon his abilities were indicated by the excitement which
was created by his arrival at the French capitol. During his residence in Paris, he
exercised an influence with the French minister which can hardly be exaggerated.
Throughout the War for long and weary months communication between the two
countries was extremely slow. The only news to reach Paris was colored by passing
through Great Britain, and France was most guarded in her attitude and reluctant to
take an open stand upon the side of the Colonies. Thus in the dread year of 1777 tales
travelled across the Channel that Washington was drawing off the remnant of his
forces in a demoralized retreat and that Philadelphia had fallen before Howe.
Franklin, however, refused to despair for his country. When told that Howe had taken
Philadelphia he laughingly replied: "No, sir, Philadelphia has taken Howe."
The brunt fell upon Franklin from first to last to keep the Colonies from financial
failure, just as Washington alone stood between his country and military disaster. Yet
to many, Franklin's task would have been far more difficult than that of Washington.
He alone at Paris could tap the rock and make the waters flow. So Congress relied
upon him to discharge all foreign bills and indebtedness and poured upon him an
endless flood of drafts. After much personal discouragement and discomfort, he
obtained from the King a promise of a free gift of 6,000,000 livres in addition to
3,000,000 furnished for interest drafts and eventually by his personal influence and
popularity he brought about the decisive French alliance.
Throughout his career Franklin commanded men's confidence. To the exclusion of
his colleagues, he enjoyed a monopoly of the respect and personal regard of the
French ministry. And even the English, when they made advances for conciliation,
addressed to him their communications. Erasmus Darwin wrote in a letter to him:
"Whilst I am writing to the philosopher and friend, I can scarcely forget that I am also
writing to the greatest statesman of the present, and perhaps of any century, who has
spread the happy contagion of liberty among his countrymen and, like the greatest
man of all antiquity, the leader of the Jews, has delivered them from the house of
bondage and the scourge of oppression." Jefferson when he succeeded Franklin as
minister at the French court wrote: "No one can replace him, I am only his successor."
Franklin was made a Mason in the Tun Tavern Lodge in 1732 or thereabouts, and
from his printing press in Philadelphia two years later was sent the first book on
Freemasonry ever published in America - a reprint of Anderson's The Constitutions of
the Freemasons. The first Masonic lodges organized in Philadelphia held annual
festivals and elected Grand Masters without written authority from the ruling Grand
Lodge of England, or any of its dependencies, by virtue of the immemorial right of
Masons, and in due course Franklin became "Grand Master of Pennsylvania."
Both Franklin and his son were treated with marked distinction by the Masonic
Fraternity in London. In Paris, he was elected member of the famous French Lodge
of the Nine Sisters of which many distinguished Frenchmen were members.
Among illustrious Americans, Franklin stands preeminent. The study of his
character, his mind and his career are of perennial interest. One becomes attached to
him, bids him farewell with regret and feels that for such as he the longest span of life
is far too short. The faults and defects of character and conduct that are urged against
him appear trivial when compared with the affection and admiration he inspired in the
great mass of mankind both in the generations contemporary with him and in those
which know him only as one of the great figures of history.
Franklin had instinctively the noblest of all ambitions, that of being of practical use to
his fellow men. To promote the welfare of mankind was the chief motive of his life.
Every moment he could snatch from enforced occupations was devoted to doing,
devising, or suggesting something advantageous to the human race. As a patriot,
none surpassed him. Intellectually few men of any age or nation are his peers. He
covered, and covered well, vast ground. He was one of the most distinguished of all
scientists. He was a profound thinker and preacher in morals and the conduct of life.
Excepting only the founders of great religions, it would be difficult to name any
person who has exerted greater influence upon the ideas, motives and habits of human
Franklin died in Philadelphia April 17, 1790, in his eighty-fifth year. More than
twenty thousand persons attended his funeral. He was not buried with Masonic rites,
for the "Modern" lodges of which he had been "Grand Master" had become extinct
during his long sojourn abroad and had been succeeded by the "Ancients." His
memory, however, has never grown dim among Masons. They cherish him as one of
their forebears who, through wise counsel, patriotism, untiring zeal and unswerving
loyalty helped to lay the corner stone of a great Nation.
His attributes demand endless descriptive adjectives - all of which seem weak and
pulpless when describing a man whose talents were so versatile that he excelled in
whatever he embraced - whether science, art, industry, diplomacy, commerce, or
What a pity that this age of specialization uncompromisingly demands that, if a man
be a scientist, he shall not be a philosopher: if he be an industrial man, he must not be
a poet! The jack-of-all-trades today is despised. Twentieth century philosophy is:
know one thing but know it well! And there like a shining beacon light stands
Franklin, patron saint of more than three score arts and industries, who was all and
excelled in each. A man who in his life lived many lives and lived them all fully and
— o —
The Origin of the Legend of the Third Degree
By Bro. R. J. MEEKREN, Canada
The author of this paper is in charge of a group of members of the National Masonic
Research Society who are making a special study of the Legend of the Third Degree.
These brethren cooperate with each other through the mail. Their findings will in due
course appear in THE BUILDER and ultimately, it is hoped, in book form. Such
brethren as may wish to join in this fascinating study may send their names to THE
BUILDER, or, better still, may communicate directly with Brother R. J. Meckren,
Stanstead, Quebec, Canada. The Society is already indebted to Brother Meekren for
many labours: the keen insight revealed in the following paper shows how well
qualified he is to conduct special researches, and leads one to prophesy that we shall
be very much more indebted to him in the future.
A QUESTION OF PERENNIAL interest to Masonic students is the origin of the
Legend of the Third Degree. The margin of disagreement is constantly shrinking, for
whereas not so very long ago opinions varied all the way from a literal acceptance of
the tale as veritable history to the assertion that it was invented by Anderson or
Desaguliers or some one else in or about 1723, it is now, one would judge, very
generally agreed that we are not dealing with history, nor yet with fiction in the
literary sense, but with an allegorical drama of the nature of the Mystery or Miracle
plays of the Middle Ages, of the type of Everyman, of the more elaborate Passion
Play of Oberammergau; and further, that the plot is archaic, ancient, and traditional.
The discussion now lies within these limits: "Was this plot once public property, and
if so, when and under what circumstances did it become an integral part of the
Bro. D.E.W. Williamson, in his article in THE BUILDER for May, 1922, page 144,
would seem to be of the opinion that it was once public property and came into the
tradition of the Craft somewhere between 1535 and 1546 through the medium of
Tyndale's or Coverdale's versions of the Bible. The facts are important. Previous
versions (which were in manuscript, by the way) were translations from the Latin of
the Vulgate; Tyndale's was a translation from the Hebrew in which the title "Abi" or
"Abif ' was rendered as part of the name, whereas in the Septuagint, the ancient Greek
version, and in the Latin versions which were taken from it, the word was translated
"my father." The coincidence is too remarkable to be fortuitous, and we are obliged to
conclude that this short-lived version of the Bible had something to do with our
Legend, as it is told today. But does this necessarily imply that it was at this time that
the story was invented? The archaic character of the story makes this scarcely even
possible. Was it at this time that it was adapted to the purposes of Masonic Ritual?
Many considerations tend to incline us to a negative answer. And not the least of
these is the argument very forcefully put by Brother J.S.M. Ward in his Freemasonry
and the Ancient Gods, [see THE BUILDER, May, 1922, page 151] to the effect that
the Fraternity is, and has always been so far as any indication goes, a secret society,
or a society holding secrets. To this one may add that it is also, and always has been,
IN WHAT SENSE THE THIRD DEGREE IS MYTH
In seeking "more light" upon the subject it may not be unprofitable to turn a little
further afield. The bringing in of ancient religious mysteries and such like material to
explain Masonic usages is rather discredited now-a-days, but the fault lies perhaps
with the mode of employment rather than with the facts themselves. It may help us
not a little to realize that what we are dealing with in the Third Degree is myth, and
this equally whether the Legend has always been part of the tradition of the Craft, or
an eighteenth or Sixteenth century importation. Like other myths it has grown; and
also it is the expression of the feeling of a social group. Like others, too, it has been
first interpreted as history, and then as conscious invention, and now it is ready for
By classifying it as a myth, in the technical sense, we are enabled to use in its
elucidation the conclusions of anthropologists and students of the history and
evolution of mythology and religion. Within the brief space of an article it is not
possible to do more than barely state some of the more important of these
conclusions, but even so it may be worth our while.
First, and as stated above, myth is the expression of the feelings and ideals of a social
group. That this is preeminently so in the present case hardly needs to be pointed
out. Secondly, it is normally the explanation of custom. Tylor's Primitive Culture, a
work to be found in most public libraries of any size, will satisfy any inquirer on this
point. From this it would follow that our Ritual preceded the Legend. Of course this
rule is not absolute, for, in modem imitations of our Order, as well as in the "higher"
degree, the process has been reversed. But these are cases of conscious and deliberate
invention, and not of growth and survival to which alone the above principle properly
applies. And in comparing such inventions with the genuine myth the difference at
once strikes the discerning eye. Even in these cases it is curious to trace the influence
of the "Work" upon the "Legend." A staking example is the Mark Degree, where the
original story has been greatly modified to fit a matured and simplified ritual. This
agrees with the hypothesis of Brother Race, in a paper published in the Transactions
of the Lodge of Research, Leicester, for a knowledge of which the present writer is
indebted to the kindness of the Editor of THE BUILDER. In this paper the internal
difficulties of the story, its inconsistencies and improbabilities, are shown to be
explicable by regarding it as the plot of a play in which the incidents are made to fit
the exigencies of the stage.
MYTH AND RITUAL GO TOGETHER
But myth, again, is the invariable accompaniment of ritual and it would appear as if
they normally develop together from the simplest beginnings. This would suggest
that we must reduce the story to its lowest factors before we begin to look for its
Again, both custom and myth are extremely tenacious of life, but not of form. The
action persists but its reference and details may be completely changed. The incident
remains but the motive is entirely new. Even apparently insignificant details may be
retained with an entirely new explanation for their presence foisted into the story.
Tylor's work, mentioned above, is the classical authority on this point. Indeed he
coined the technical term "survival" to designate this constantly recurring
phenomenon. In our own case, therefore, we may confidently look for customs and
stories that are ancient, of unknown antiquity, but that have developed and grown,
quite possibly out of all knowledge of their originals, unless one is able to produce
Then we may apply the comparative method that has proved so fruitful in similar
investigations in other fields. This brings us to a set of facts that have hardly even
been alluded to by most writers on this subject - the wide variations in the Legend
itself. Brother Race, for instance, in the paper above referred to, has critically
examined the version current in British Freemasonry; Brother Williamson deals with
that familiar to American Masons. The difficulties of the one do not exist in the
other, and criticism applied to the other might be entirely irrelevant to the former.
And there are again other variations even yet of authority in Europe, while there are
many traces of yet others in the disjecta membra of "sources," especially in the mass
of references, allusions, documents and illicit publications dating from the eighteenth
century. A comparison of these would seem to point to some extremely interesting
and important conclusions.
One may note some of the more salient of these. It would appear for instance that the
original story, as it emerged into the historical period, that is, the Grand Lodge era,
knew nothing of any pursuit or punishment of criminals. In fact a whole class of
degrees were invented from 1750 on, (the "Ecossais" and "Kadosh" degrees) to
supply this lack. Another is that the motive for the crime was very uncertain.
Jealousy on the part of K.S. over Baltis, Queen of Sheba, appears in one wild account
where the wise king is made to play a part like that of his father's dealings with Uriah
the Hittite. In others, professional jealousy appears as the motive. Again, in certain
early French work it is said that the Hebrew name of God was the original WORD,
but that it was feared that it might have become known, and so "les autres maitres,"
not K.S., on discovering the body, "current opportun de le changer, et substituerent a
Jehova le mot. ..."
When we get through this process of cancelling out the variations and taking what
underlies all versions we have left a very simple and indefinite, but highly significant,
story which might thus be told. Someone was killed by someone else, who was
assisted by two others; fifteen people had something to do with the affair; the body
was hidden; and a green branch was connected with its discovery. Neither time,
place, nor occasion is certain, any more than the motive and identity of the actors. To
which may be added the special Masonic element, that this occurred during the
erection of some vast and important building. Other minor details are constant.
There is a hill top, and a reference to the Cardinal Points for example. This bare
skeleton of a plot is obviously connected with such stories as that of the Apprentice
Pillar at Rosslyn, and the Apprentice's Window at Lincoln, no less than with similar
stories from Germany and the remarkable and complex tale that is half told in
Perdiguier's Livre du Compagnonage of the death of Maitre Jacques at the hands of
the disciples of Maitre Soulise - and it is at the same time practically identical with
the myths of "mystery" ritual literally the world over. Such plots are not first public
and then by some lapse of memory covered by the veil of secrecy, but whenever
found to be public property can generally be shown to have been once secret. These
are several normal ways in which a mystery becomes public, but none (excepting of
course deliberate invention) by which what is public becomes a mystery.
OUR LEGEND'S CONNECTION WITH MIRACLE PLAYS
How came our legend to have such close analogies with the Miracle Plays? The
Mystery is always dramatic, indeed it is not too rash to suppose that the origin of all
drama, as of dancing, is to be found in primitive mystery ritual. The origin of the
Oriental theatre has not, so far as the present writer is aware, yet been investigated but
that of the Greeks has, and it is practically certain that it had its origin directly in the
Mysteries of Dionysus. A comparison of the Greek tragedies remaining shows under
all the variety and "humanity" of the general aspect an extraordinary coincidence in
the essentials of the plots. In all of them can be found an Agon, a Pathos, a
Messenger, a Threnos, an Anagnorisis, a Peripeteia, and a Theophany. In some of the
plays one or other of these elements may be reduced to the barest minimum yet a
distinct trace will persist; the order may vary but the cycle remains. Now translate
these terms into ordinary English and apply them to our Legend. There is an Agon or
struggle; a Pathos, or suffering; a Messenger; a Threnos, or lamentation; an
Anagnorisis, or discover, and finally a Peripeteia, or reversal of feeling, a change
from darkness to light, from sorrow to joy, and even a sort of pale reflection of a
Theophany, or revelation of the Divinity. What happened in Athens was that a
Mystery became public, and we have the Greek plays as a result. But there were
hundreds of other mysteries of which we do not even definitely know the existence,
and which were never public. But to go further into this would lead us altogether too
I reecho Brother Williamson's lament as to the difficulty of gaining access to original
sources of information. I have been unable so far to do more than barely touch this
field of inquiry. But I feel convinced that here lies a possibility of explaining, by
means of the laws of the normal development of religious and semi-religious ideas
and institutions, the things that are so puzzling in our ancient Fraternity. In any case
it was too much to believe that such at Legend, coupled with such a Ritual, so closely
paralleling those of mystery rites everywhere and in every age, could have been
devised by eighteenth century scholars, or even evolved by sixteenth century
Bro. David E. W. Williamson, Reno, Nevada, who has been at work this past year
upon a book concerning the Third Degree, had opportunity to read Bro. Meekren's
manuscript printed above and as a result of his interest in the same wrote YE
EDITOR a long letter in which occurred a paragraph good to read as a codicil to Bro.
Meekren's brilliant paper. If this communication is printed here instead of in the
Correspondence Department it is in order to render it all the more useful to those who
are interested in the subject, and not in any sense as a supplement to the above article.
"Brother Meekren has followed the line of reasoning that I find in the Revised
Mackey on the 'Origin of the Third Degree.' The chapter in the History is from the
pen of Bro. Clegg, himself, I imagine, because it carries a vein of thought that he has
touched upon in several letters to me. But Bro. Meekren adds much from a deep
store of classic reading and reaches several conclusions under his various heads that
are distinctively original and suggestive. As to "ab" and its construct forms of "abi"
and "abiv" he is quite right, I think, in his view, but a clincher would be to have the
original of Josephus looked up to see what Josephus really wrote at the point
translated by Whiston: "Antiochus to Zeuxis His Father." Zeuxis was the
commanding general of his forces and not his father in fact. My Bagger's Septuagint
is not the last word in scholarship, of course, but according to it "Chiram ton patera
mou" would be translated "Hiram, who belonged to my father," which 1 believe is the
consensus of scholars on this point. In a footnote, the editor (not named) says that
according to the Alexandrine MS. it might mean "Chiram, my son" or even "Chiram,
my servant." But every city Arabian vagabond and huckster in Cairo, according to
Col. Green and many fugitive writings, has the expression "abuya" in his mouth all
day long, addressed to anybody whom he seeks to induce to buy his wares. And
"abuya" means "my father" and nothing else.
"I think I shall have to unload all these "abi" facts upon you in a page or so one of
these days, if you think anybody would care to read them. You see I'm sceptical
about the Craft being interested in such matters as derivation and possible meaning of
words and feel that you have made THE BUILDER interesting and educational by
eliminating the dead wood. Except to those whose tastes lie in a philological
direction, derivations are certainly "dead wood" and besides they require such painful
accuracy to be anything more than mere guesses."
David E. W. Williamson, Nevada.
BY BRO. C. GORDON LAWRENCE, CANADA
I sat one day beside the flowing river
And watched it as it glided on its way,
So smooth and placid in its onward motion
Avoiding all delay.
Within its bosom was a moving purpose,
A longing wish to reach the mighty sea,
And all its strength it gave to that one purpose
But yet how noiselessly.
And I have learned that somewhere in the distance
Beyond the mountain and the spreading lea,
Still moving in that calm majestic sweetness,
The river found the sea.
To become an able man in any profession, there are three things necessary - nature,
study and practice. - Aristotle.
Memorials to Great Men Who Were Masons
WINFIELD SCOTT SCHLEY
By Bro. GEO. W. BAIRD, P.G.M., District of Columbia
REAR ADMIRAL, WINFIELD SCOTT SCHLEY, U. S. N., "the hero of Santiago,”
was the only man ever made a Mason at sight in the District of Columbia. After
becoming a member of Benjamin B. French Lodge in 18953, he found himself so
fascinated with Freemasonry that he took all of his degrees one after another as
rapidly as he could. I think that Freemasonry had a great deal to do with his thought
and feelings from that time until his death, and I am anxious to have it known that one
who made such a place for himself in our national annals found so much worth in our
Craft during the last years of his life.
Winfield Scott Schley was born in Maryland in 1849 and received his early education
in Frederick of that state. He was appointed a cadet midshipman in our navy in 1856
and was graduated a midshipman in 1860.
He was ordered to the Steam Frigate Niagara of the East India squadron and soon was
off on a cruise, during which time he was promoted to past midshipman.
The Niagara was ordered home very hurriedly at the time of the Civil War but its
officers and men were in ignorance of the extent of the calamity which had befallen
the nation until the vessel reached Cape Town, at which time the commanding officer
learned that civil war was actually under way.
The voyage home was made partly under sail and partly under steam as the ship did
not carry coal enough for the entire distance. It was thought that each and every man
should go with his state but it was not known how many states had seceded until the
Niagara reached Boston when an officer came on board at which time the crew was
mustered and the statement made that every officer must take an additional oath of
allegiance. Those who refused or asked time to consider were placed under arrest
with the exception of Schley himself who was allowed forty-eight hours in which to
communicate with his people. Before that time had expired he learned that Maryland
had not seceded, upon which he promptly took the oath.
He was shortly afterward promoted to the rank of Master and ordered to the old
sailing Frigate Potomac stationed at Ship Island in Mississippi Sound. This duty was
monotonous and irksome, and officers and men tried to escape from it, but Schley did
not have long to wait before receiving his first command. He was put in charge of one
of the famous ninety day "gunboats" called the Winona.
When Captain Farragut arrived to assemble his fleet at the bar of the Mississippi
River, he found it necessary to jettison part of the cargo of the Colorado and of the
Pensacola in an effort to get them through the shallow water. He succeeded in getting
the Pensacola over but not the Colorado. Schley's own little ship was particularly
useful in these maneuvers. Several Confederate gunboats (the Ivy, the Manassas, etc.)
not infrequently came within range while reconnoitering but never lingered very long
after a shot was fired.
On one occasion Farragut sent Schley up to the head of the passes for observation and
very soon heard heavy firing. He signalled Schley to cease firing and return but that
officer did not heed his orders. The signal was repeated again and again but still
Schley did not heed it. After the firing had ceased and the Winona returned, Farragut
sent up a signal, "Commanding Officer, come aboard." Schley remarked afterwards in
telling the story that he confidently expected a court-martial. Captain Farragut met
him on the quarterdeck of the Hartford and administered a severe reprimand during
which time Schley kept glancing nervously at the yardarm because he was afraid he
might be hanged there. He said he never felt so mean or ashamed in-his whole life.
When Farragut had finished his reprimand, he exclaimed, "Now, young man, come
into the cabin with me, I have something more to say!"
Schley followed him into the cabin. As soon as the door was closed, Farragut
produced a bottle of sherry and two glasses, held up a glass of wine, and exclaimed:
"Young man, if I commanded a gunboat and got into a mixup with the enemy, and
was getting the better of him, I'll be d - d if I'd see a signal either."
Schley was in charge of the Winona at the Port Huron, Louisiana, engagement, and in
most of the engagements which took place about Port Hudson, Grand Gulf, Baton
Rouge and the Chalmette Batteries: he helped run the Mississippi River forts, and he
was at the fall of New Orleans.
After the Civil War was ended Commander Schley served at the Naval Academy as
instructor in Spanish, in which language he was very proficient. Leaving there he
made a cruise in the Pacific in the famous Wateree, a vessel that was afterward
carried up by a tidal wave and left stranded on the sands of Africa three-quarters of a
mile from the water.
He again returned to the Naval Academy and then once again made another Pacific
cruise, this time in the sloop of war Benicia. Later he commanded the Essex. Then he
became lighthouse inspector and later was chief of the Bureau of Equipment of the
Department of the Navy.
After that he became commanded of the Cruiser Baltimore. The members of his crew
got into a fight with the crew of a Chilean cruiser and became thereby forced into
diplomatic differences with the officials of that republic. In the give and take of this
diplomatic quarrel, he acquitted himself well. Later he became commander of the
battleship New York, and later still assumed chairmanship of the lighthouse board.
When the Spanish American War broke out, he was placed in command of the flying
squadron, his flagship being the Brooklyn. The West Indies squadron was
commanded by an estimable officer who had broken down in health and who was
succeeded temporarily by a captain who was a grade in rank below Schley (now a
commodore) and to whom for some reason the Navy Department had given the
temporary rank of rear admiral. Newspapers reported the Spanish squadron under
Cervera as enroute to the United States and it was known that there were guns in that
Spanish fleet capable of very long range. Dailies along the Atlantic Coast frightened
cities very much so that many feared that Cervera might be planning to destroy them.
Commodore Schley assembled his flying squadron at the mouth of the Chesapeake,
which was central and there stayed in readiness for an attack the moment the Span;sh
Fleet might be reported. That fleet was discovered in the region of Martinique in
waters controlled by the West Indies squadron. Upon sailing for those waters,
Commodore Schley found himself, when in action, working under an officer above
whom he himself ranked. Neither that officer nor Schley quarreled or uttered any
complaints but the general public became much agitated and to this day men argue as
to whom the honors of that naval encounter should go.
Admiral Schley was a very temperate man and always careful of his health. He
avoided drugs, depended largely on nature to relieve his ailments, enjoyed life and
was seldom ill. Death came suddenly as he had always wished and was due to a
cerebral hemmorhage while walking along the streets of New York City. Bystanders
who lifted the well dressed and slender form from the sidewalk were astonished to
discover it to be the body of the famous Winfield Scott SChley. He was buried with
military and Masonic honors in the National Cemetery at Arlington. Over his grave
was erected the beautiful granite memorial shown in the accompanying illustration.
— o —
CHAPTERS OF MASONIC HISTORY
BY BRO. H.L. HAYWOOD
EDITOR THE BUILDER
PART IV - FREEMASONRY AND THE ROMAN COLLEGIA
THE BUILDER JUNE 1923
THE ORIGIN OF MODERN Freemasonry has been traced by means of documents
and other historical records to guilds of builders in the Middle Ages. These guilds in
turn were derived from yet earlier forms of organized endeavour (as has already been
noted in the chapter on the Cathedral Builders) therefore Masonic historians have
found it necessary to try to push their way back behind them in an attempt to learn
how they came into existence. Nearly all these historians have fastened their attention
on the Roman collegia (plural form of collegium) as furnishing the most probable
ancestry for the guilds from which Freemasonry sprang, therefore it is necessary for a
Masonic student to know something about those societies of ancient Rome.
A collegium was an association of persons, never less than three, for some chosen
object, usually of a trade, social, or religious character, organized according to law. It
had its own regulations and usually its own meeting place. In the majority of cases
these collegia were dealt with by law as having what is known in lawyer parlance as
"a legal personality," that is to say, they could own property and they could be held
accountable through their officials for their acts. The collegiate organizations reached
their perfection and became most popular in Rome, therefore they are generally
known as Roman collegia, but they were also popular in many other countries as well.
I. - COFFEGIA WERE ORGANIZED AMONG GREEKS, EGYPTIANS, ETC.
The great majority of Greek Collegia were organized about the worship of some god
or hero. Religion was a public activity controlled by the state and consequently was
formal in its character; many men and women, feeling the need for something more
emotional, organized themselves into cults for the private worship of their favourite
gods, and these organizations were often collegiate in form. It is believed that the
famous Orphic mysteries, so often described by Masonic writers, were begun in this
manner. Collegia of worshippers of Bacchus existed in the second century; there is a
record of such a collegium dated 186 B.C. These and other Greek collegia were called
by various names, thiassoi, hetairai, etc.
Political activity among the Greeks sometimes assumed the collegiate form,
especially among the lower classes and among colonies of resident aliens, the latter of
whom usually settled at or near some seaport. There were political collegia at Athens
in the time of Pericles, and they caused much trouble. In 413 B.C. a group of them
conspired to overthrow the democratic government. Such Greek associations,
however, were not very numerous or powerful, and never reached anything like the
state of development as that attained in Rome.
Collegia became more or less common in Egypt in the first century B.C., especially
among the worshippers of Isis. Apuleius mentions one such organization under date
of 79 B.C., and there is reason to believe that they had existed much earlier. In many
cases they took the form of burial clubs, about which more anon. Records of the
existence of such associations in the famous region of the Fayum have been found,
bearing date of 67 B.C. In Asia Minor, also, traces of collegia have been unearthed,
and it is believed that Thyatira had a larger number than any other city in Asia; its
college of smiths became known throughout the world.
II - COLLEGIA BECAME VERY COMMON IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE
Among the Romans collegiate associations were so old that legend attributed their
founding to Numa, the second of the traditional Roman kings, and there is a mention
of collegia in the Twelve Tables. These organizations flourished unhampered until
after the beginning of the first century B.C., during which time some opposition
began to develop among Roman law makers. In 64 B.C. they were forbidden for a
while, with the exception of a few of a religious character, but in 58 a Clodian law
once again permitted them. This law was set aside only two years afterwards. Julius
Caesar in his turn forbade them all, except Jewish associations of worship, on the
ground that they dabbled too much in politics. When Augustus became emperor he
espoused the cause of the collegia and caused to be adopted an imperial statute that
came to stand as the foundation of all jurisprudence having to do with them and with
similar organizations. The Emperor Marcus Aurelius was the greatest friend the
collegia ever had.
Except for these general statutes the collegia were left very much to themselves until
Nero became emperor, when he caused to be adopted a series of regulations
controlling the associations in Italian towns. These regulations were extended to
include provincial towns by Trajan, and from his regime until the end one emperor
after another assumed such increasing control of the collegia that there came a time
when they were merely cogs in the great machinery of state. Membership was made
hereditary; transfer of a man from one collegium to another was forbidden; and
freedom to work or not to work was everywhere denied. Industry became in effect a
state controlled monopoly, and workmen were as restricted as soldiers in an army.
The imperial system in its last centuries was supported by the power it extorted from
the collegia, so that the organizations of trades, the organizations of politics, and the
organizations of military forces became three great pillars underneath the empire.
In spite of the great mass of regulations and restrictive laws, and of the severe
penalties hedging them all about, a great many collegia came into existence under
conditions and for purposes that violated the statutes. These were known as collegia
illicits, and gave the officials just such trouble as bootleggers give nowadays. Some
of these unlawful associations were of a religious character, others were hatching
places for political intrigues. When apprehended they were severely dealt with
through the person of their president, who was compelled to pay a heavy fine or else
go to jail.
It is amazing to discover how many collegia there were. More than twenty-five
hundred inscriptions are in existence, and these have emanated from some four
hundred and seventy-five towns and villages of the empire. In the city of Rome itself
more than eighty different trades were organized, and it is believed that if the
memorials were more complete the number would be considerably increased. It is a
great misfortune that we are so dependent on inscriptions and similar records, because
time has not dealt kindly with such things, but this is the case and because the classic
writers almost always scorned to speak of them owing to their plebeian character.
Like our own literary historians the old Latin writers loved to tell about lords and
ladies and other notables, their fortunes, their intrigues, and their wars: the
numberless masses of common folk lay outside their range of vision. An attempt to
discover what the historians of the Roman Empire have had to say about the collegia
will bring this home to a man; in all the histories that I was able to consult I did not
find any reference worth reading except in one or two of the thick volumes of Duruy,
the Frenchman. Gibbon raises his eyebrows; Ferrers has nothing to say; Mommsen
forgets all about it, though in 1870 he published a tome in Latin on the matter, which,
so far as one may discover, has never been translated into English; and so it goes.
One is driven back on the archaeologists.
A great many collegia were organized solely for the purpose of guaranteeing a
member a decent sepulture; they were known as teuinorum collegia, or burial clubs.
Each club of this kind built or leased a hall, and held regular meetings upon which
occasions poems were read about the deceased, or a feast was held to commemorate a
brother on his birthday anniversary. Each of these pathetic little societies owned, or
had access to, a columbarium. A columbarium, God save the mark, was a kind of
nickname, and meant literally dovecote, which was a name suggested by the fact that
it so much resembled the little buildings in which aristocrats housed their doves. In a
dark room, half underground, were galleries of niches, each large enough to contain
an urn; every member of the collegium was entitled to his niche and his urn, and there
were provisions for a vase of flowers, perhaps, or even an inscription.
Death was a thing of horror to the Roman, especially if he had the misfortune to be
poor, because his creeds taught him that a man illy buried would turn out an unhappy
ghost, or even would wander unhoused about the winds, a forlorn and shivering spirit
in an agony of loneliness. Accordingly, every man strained his resources to see to it
that his own soul was protected against such a fate. The rich could build their own
monuments - every Roman highway of any importance was lined by such things - but
the slaves and the poor were hard put to stave off neglect after death. They resorted
to the expedient of pooling their resources, and the burial club was the result.
It is impossible for us modems to realize how much such a thing meant to a Roman
with little or no means. The public custom of disposing of the uncared for dead was
repellent beyond description. Great pits were kept half open near the centers of
population and into these, without any ceremony, the corpses of the poor were
dumped. To escape such a horror a man was willing to make almost any sacrifice.
Owing to this feeling about burial the Romans were always patient with any attempt
at securing decorous funeral lites, therefore the collegia having such matters in charge
were dealt with patiently and often with lenience. It is supposed by such authorities
as Sir William Ramsey that many of the early Christian churches were first organized
as burial clubs in order to escape the wrath of the officials, especially when all private
religious associations were under the ban, as happened several times. It is believed
by some that the early church was often persecuted, not because of the theological
doctrines it taught, but because officialdom deemed associations of private persons a
menace to the state.
The great majority of collegia came into existence for more mundane purposes.
Almost every profession, art, and trade had its own organization made in due form,
and according to imperial statute. Sometimes the division of function among these
crafts was carried to an extreme as when the garbage collectors had their own
collegium, the slipper makers theirs, the vendors of fish theirs, the wig makers theirs,
etc. The oldest known inscription refers to a collegium of cooks, 200 B.C. It has been
alleged by many Masonic writers that collegia of masons, or builders and architects,
occupied a distinctive place and enjoyed special honours and privileges. It is true that
Cicero remarks of the honourableness of architecture, and that a few other of the
Latins mention that calling as having a peculiar usefulness, but other than this I have
never been able to discover any grounds for the assertions so freely made by our own
historians, though I have searched with loving care, seeing that I have wished to find
There were no collegia in Roman Africa, and there were not many in the Eastern
Empire, but elsewhere they were thickly scattered through Roman civilization. Every
regiment of soldiers carried with it its own collegia of engineers, carpenters, and such
craftsmen, and, as Coote remarks, "it was as easy to imagine a Roman without a city
as to conceive his existence without collegia."
Ill - HOW THE COLLEGIA WERE ORGANIZED
Each collegium aspired to control or own a hall or meeting place, which it called
schola, or in some cases, curia. For officials it had a kind of president called by
different names, magistri, curitarious, quinquennales, perfecti praesides, and so on.
Decuriones were a kind of warden, and there were factors or quaestors to manage the
business affairs. Each society had its own laws, called lex college, and its house rules
or by-laws, and these regulations were based, as already explained, on the imperial
statutes. Fees and dues went into a common chest, called the area. It has been
alleged by some writers that the funds thus accumulated were used for charitable
purposes but the best informed archaeologists dissent from this opinion, and say that
the income was employed to defray necessary expenses for the upkeep of
headquarters, and for memorial banquets. Oftentimes some well-to-do member or
friend left behind a legacy, usually with the direction that it be used for memorial
banquets, but sometimes for the benefits of the membership as a whole. Most
collegia besought the graces of a patron, often a woman, who, in return for signal
honours, helped defray the expenses of the little group. It is supposed by a few
chroniclers that these patrons, who often belonged to the upper classes, were more or
less useful in controlling the activities of the collegia in the interests of the established
The social system of Rome, with its semi-caste form, was reflected inside the
collegium where the differences of rank were anxiously observed, and the member
from some noble house always received special honours. Slaves were often admitted,
if they came with the consent of their masters, and there were many freedmen, who
were in many cases wealthy men. For the most part, the technical organization of the
body, with its officials, its ranks, and its parish outlines, was modelled on the lay-out
of the typical Roman city which was to a Roman the ne plus ultra of political
IV. - THE COEEEGIA AND FREEMASONRY
To the student of the evolution of Freemasonry from its first crude traces until its
present state of affluence and power, the story of the collegia is of considerable
importance. The enthusiastic notion that those ancient associations were Masonic
lodges in the literal sense, and that through them our Fraternity as it now exists can
trace its history back to 1000 B.C. or beyond, must be abandoned except in a sense so
broad as almost to rob the idea of any meaning at all. Nevertheless the collegiate
organization may justly be considered as one item in a long chain of general as
sociational development, the last link of which is our modem Fraternity.
There are three or four theories which hold that one may trace a certain tenuous
continuity between the Roman collegia and modem Freemasonry.
One of these is the Dionysiac Artificers theory. This hypothesis was given the shape
with which we are now familiar by Hyppolito Joseph Da Costa in his Sketch for the
History of the Dionysian Artificers (published complete in instalment form in The
Montana Mason beginning with November, 1921), and he was followed, and his
arguments repeated, by The History of Freemasonry, drawn from authentic source of
information; with an account of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, from its Institution in
1736 to the present time, compiled from the Records; and an Appendix of Original
Papers, a famous old volume long attributed to Alexander Lawrie but now generally
believed to have been written by Sir David Brewster. The essence of this theory is
that these Artificers were employed - lodges of them, that is - in the building of King
Solomon's Temple, and that they preserved the secrets of architecture until at last they
transmitted them to such of the Roman collegia as practised that art.
At this juncture the equally well known Comacine theory comes in. According to this
reading of the matter, as we may learn from Cathedral Builders, by "Leader Scott,"
and from Brother Ravenscroff s codicils to the same in his Comacines - Their
Predecessors and Their Successors, a few of the Roman builders' collegia (collegia
fabrorum) took refuge from the Barbarian invasions on or near Lake Como in
Northern Italy and there kept alive a knowledge of building until such time as
conditions had stabilized themselves and Europe had become ready for another
civilization. When the barbarian peoples began to build their own cities and to lay
out their highways these Comacini, so the theory has it, went here and there to teach
the people the arts of building. They established schools, and acted as missionaries in
general throughout the various countries of Europe, England included, all of which
will be described in more adequate manner in a chapter to come.
The third of the theories that would connect the collegia with early Masonic guilds is
that which Gould elaborates at some length in the first volume of his History, but
without committing himself one way or the other. According to this theory, collegia
entered Britain with the Roman army of conquest and were responsible for the cities,
highways, dikes and churches, some remains of which are still in existence. When the
Angles, Saxons and Danes made an end of the Roman civilization in the islands, the
collegia continued to exist among them in a somewhat changed form, known as
guilds. Among these guilds were those devoted to building and its allied arts, and out
of these guilds there emerged in time those organizations of Masons who gave us
Freemasonry. Some of the greatest historians in the world deny all this in toto -
Freeman among them - while others accept it. A layman must make up his mind to
Still another theory is that which connects the medieval guilds of Europe with the
collegia that lingered late in and about Constantinople, or, as it was called,
Byzantium. It is supposed that as these organizations of Byzantine builders came
more and more into demand they moved gradually across Italy and on up into central
Europe where they served as the seed out of which came the Teutonic guilds.
According to the theory, it was from these Teutonic guilds that the Masonic guilds of
England came, and it was out of the English guilds that Freemasonry emerged.
Until such time as more evidence is forthcoming these, and other theories that could
be described if space permitted, will all hang more or less in the air. For my own part
I do not accept any of them as proved. None of them have a sufficient bottom of
known facts. It appears to me that we should hold judgment in suspense.
Nevertheless and in spite of this uncertainty, the collegia will ever continue to be of
importance to us Masons because they give us one of the best examples in the world
of how and why it is that such a thing as Freemasonry grows up out of human nature.
In the days of the Roman Empire life became hard and it grew complex, so that the
individual found himself helpless to battle the world alone. He discovered that if he
would combine his own puny individual forces with the resources of his neighbours
and friends that what he alone could not do he might do through cooperation.
Through pooling their money, their knowledge, their influence, and their good will
the dim multitudes of common people learned to hold their own in a great hard world
It is so today. The lodge is a means whereby the solitary individual may escape from
his helplessness by linking his own life onto the lives of his fellows. In its utmost
essence that is what Freemasonry does. It goes down into the depths of a man's
nature until it finds what is most permanent and universal in him and links that onto
the inmost nature of many others. Held together by such a Mystic Tie brethren work
and live together and they who might in our large centers lead lonely lives as
strangers or even as enemies are able to rescue from the welter of modern life the
sweet amenities of friendship, brotherly love, relief, mutual tolerance, and kindliness.
What the collegium was to the men of ancient Rome, the Masonic lodge is to men of
WORKS CONSULTED IN PREPARING THIS ARTICLE
Livy, Metamorphosis, XI, 30. Kennedy, St. Paul and the Mystery Religions, 72, etc.
Poland, History of the Greeks. Waltzing, Historical Studies of the Professional
Corporations of the Romans. Pauly, Realencyclopadie, article by Komemann on
Collegium. Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible, vol. V, 132. A Companion to Latin
Studies, see. 202. Find complete Latin bibliography in sec. 563. Hasting,
Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, vol. VI, 218. Hatch, The Organization of Early
Christian Churches. Encyclopedia Britannica, eleventh edition, vol VI, 564.
Mommsen, De Collegiis et Sodalitiis Romanorum Kiliae, 1870. Grote, History of
Greece, vol. V, Greenidge, Handbook of Greek Constitutional History, 208 ff. Davis,
The Influence of Wealth in Imperial Rome, section on Gilds. Pliny, Epistle X, 97, 98.
Abbott, The Common People of Ancient Rome, 205. Corpus Inscriptionum
Latinarum, XI, 5047; V, 7906; 111, 953; VIII, 14683; III, 3583; XIV, 2112; XIV, 326.
Friedlander, Roman Life and Manners, I, 146. Fowler, The Religious Experience of
the Roman People, eh. beginning p. 270. Barnes, Early Church in the Light of the
Monuments, 53. De Rossi, Roma Soterranea, 58. Bulletino di Arch. Crist. Ramsey,
The Church in the Roman Empire, 213. Hatch, Bampton Lectures, 152. Le Blant,
Actes, 282. Dill, Roman Life From Nero to Marcus Aurelius. Plutarch, Numa.
Duruy, History of Rome, several chapters; consult index. Cobern, The New
Archaeological Discoveries and the New Testament. Pelham, Essays on Roman
History, 701 ff. Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, XI, 170. Scott, The Cathedral Builders,
book II, eh. 3. Clegg, Mackey's History of Freemasonry, eh. 46 ff. Gould, The History
of Freemasonry, vol. I, 36. See bibliographical notes in entire chapter. Coote, The
Romans of Britain. Fort, Early History and Antiquities of Masonry. Hope, Historical
Essay on Architecture. Newton, The Builders, part I, eh 5. Armitage, A Short
Masonic History, vol I ch 7. Gould, The Concise History of Freemasonry, (Crowe's
Revision), 10. Ward, Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods, part 1, ch. 17. Spence,
Encyclopedia of Occultism, article on Freemasonry. Corpus Juris Civilis, Dig.
XL VII, 22. Brown, From Schola to Cathedral.
Mackey's Encyclopedia - (Revised Edition):
Ancient Mysteries, 497; Builder, 123; Collegium, 158. Comacine Masters, 161;
Egyptian Mysteries, 232; Freemasons of the Church, 150; Gilds, 296; Initiations of
the Egyptian Priests, 234; Isis, 358; Mysteries of Osiris, 540; Oath of the Gild, 524;
Orphic Mysteries, 539; Osiris, 540; Roman Colleges of Artificers, 630; Stone-Masons
of the Middle Ages, 718.
Vol. Ill, 1917. - Masonic History - Suggestions for Research, p.204; The Cathedral
Builders, p. 380.
Vol. IV, 1918. - The Comacines, p. 63.
Vol. VI, 1920. - A Bird's-Eye View of Masonic History, 236
Vol. VII, 1921. - Whence Came Freemasonry, p. 90.
Vol. VIII, 1922. - A Mediating Theory, p. 318.
According to our usual custom Study Club articles will be discontinued for July and
August during which season nearly all Study Clubs discontinue their meetings. The
series will be resumed in THE BUILDER for September with an article on "The
Comacine Masters," and that will be followed by others in due order until a more or
less complete history of the Craft will have been published.
— o —
THE SHRINE AND ITS PROBLEMS
AN ESTIMABLE Masonic scribe has recently published an article under the caption,
"Do We Want the Shrine?" The burden of his argument is that the Shrine is a kind of
novel experiment in which lurks a deal of danger for Freemasonry and it is high time
Craftsmen were looking into the matter. The unfortunate thing about this writer, so
far as the present subject is concerned, is that he is some fifty years too late.
The Shrine is not an experiment, blushing with timidity, but a veteran among
fraternities with a half century of achievement behind it. It built its first temple in
New York City in 1872, which is fifty-one years ago. It elected Pro. Walter M.
Fleming its first Imperial Potentate in New York in June, 1876, and on the same date
held the first meeting of its Imperial Council, subsequent to which time the Council
has been in session some forty-seven times. Since Mecca Temple was organized
(1872) the Shrine has chartered more than one hundred and fifty temples, many of
which have buildings of their own that are as imposing as they are unique. Its
membership now runs close to five hundred thousand and every one of these is either
a Knight Templar or a Scottish Rite Mason. It is too late to ask if we want the Shrine.
About one-fifth of the total Masonic membership of this country have voted to make
it a reality.
It is this fact of the Masonic character of its personnel that raises the problems which
the above mentioned writer has discussed, because the profane world, knowing of the
intimacy between the Shrine and Masonic bodies, accept the Shrine as being itself a
Masonic organization and therefore hold Freemasonry responsible for all its doings.
With this opinion that the Shrine is an integral part of the Masonic family of rites and
bodies a great many Masons appear to agree, for they accept it into their circles on the
same terms as organizations known as strictly Masonic. They devote departments to it
in Masonic periodicals; they incorporate its story in their histories of the Order; and
they invite it to house itself in their own buldings, as witness the great new temple
now building in Detroit where the Shrine is to have headquarter facilities on a par
with Blue Lodges, Chapters, the Consistory, etc., etc. What is still more important,
Shrine representatives are frequently permitted to solicit their membership directly
from among Masons, and often while Masonic bodies are at work, as at Scottish Rite
reunions. Some may be quite willing to accept the Shrine frankly as being as much a
Masonic body as a lodge or a chapter; others may refuse to admit that it is more than
an auxiliary; in either case the fact remains that the Shrine and Masonic bodies
strictly so called are living and working on terms of closest intimacy, so that,
whatever be the formal status of the Shrine, its welfare and the general welfare of the
Craft must necessarily, and to a certain extent, go hand in hand.
Some of the problems that have arisen from this intimacy have been pretty generally
discussed, often with anxious care, and some times in Grand Lodge. The habit of
soliciting members, so frankly referred to by Brother McCandless in his article in this
issue, grates on the sensibility of many Blue Lodge Masons who look upon
solicitation in any form as unmasonic. These same brethren dislike very much to see
men seek admittance to a Blue Lodge merely as a step looking toward membership in
the Shrine. Also they have been shocked on two or three occasions by what one
Grand Lodge spokesman described as "mad doings." Furthermore, many of these
same brethren feel that in Masonry there is an almost solemn dignity, like that which
one finds in all sincere religion, and that this dignity does not appear to them to
comport well with a parade of Masons going down a city street in red fezzes and
There is no attempt to raise such questions here, which are cited merely by way of
illustration, least of all is there any attempt to answer them. But there is one principle
that may be mentioned which, if it were always adhered to, would automatically
dispose of almost all such difficulties. In all Masonic activities whatsoever the strictly
Masonic work of every Masonic body must have always the right of way; secondary
and auxiliary activities must always take a second place. This applies not only to the
Shrine but to all the other playgrounds of Masonry. It is a great evil when a Blue
Lodge initiation is crowded into the early afternoon in order to free the lodge room
for a dinner dance, or when it is hurriedly got out of the road in order that an amateur
orchestra may entertain the crowd. Such doings ARE unmasonic, and should be
everywhere frowned on.
Brother McCandless and his colleagues are in the vanguard of those who frown on
them. All Shriners are brother Masons, and some of the wisest heads of the Craft are
members of the Imperial Council. They are fully awake to all their problems, and it is
pretty safe to predict that they will meet them in a spirit that looks only to the high
ideals of Masonry. One thing is certain. No good will ever come from attempts to set
one group of Masons into opposition with other groups. We are all members of one
great family, and our welfare must ever consist in the application of the family spirit
to all our problems.
Such problems as may now confront the Shrine are incidental to all great
organizations, and there is no need to fear lest the wisdom of Masonry fail in solving
them as they arise from time to time. Meanwhile every Mason can cordially echo the
sentiments expressed by Brother McCandless in his last paragraph. It is a good thing
for brethren to enjoy good fellowship; to let God's sunshine into every heart; to
increase the joy of life; to add to the gaiety of nations.
"THE CHARM OF FINE MANNERS"
A rare old Spanish Dictionary of the eighteenth century described etiquette as "a book
of ceremonies hid in the king's palace." The words are fragrant as an old wine, are
they not, and suggest, after the manner of poetry, many more things than they tell. In
the Old French, from which etiquette is derived, the term was used of the tickets
given out at court to enable each member of the king's suite to kind the place in line
properly suited to his rank. This association of courtliness, of kingly mien, and
elegant deportment, hangs like an aroma about the word still, and conveys to us a hint
of what sort of thing it is. Good manners accepted and used, and consequently
transformed into a ceremonial, such a thing is etiquette, and only a boor would make
light of it. It is to good manners what the written score is to music, and quite as
necessary, lest the harmony of social intercourse evaporate away.
Emerson once exclaimed that if manners were lost out of the world, some gentleman
would rediscover them, because they are necessary to the social life of civilized
people. The Sage of Concord was little given to forms; indeed, he did more than any
other man of his generation to dissolve them, but for all that he saw clearly how
necessary they are. "The charm of fine manners is music and sculpture and picture,"
he remarked on another occasion. A saying similar to this is attributed to an old sage
of ancient Europe: "Men make laws, women make manners." It is to say that men
contribute strength; women, beauty; and that charm, address, and courtesy are as
important as armies and gunpowder.
Our brethren in England long ago learned how good and beautiful a thing it is for
Masons to work together in lodge under the inspiration of etiquette. They employ a
Master of Ceremonies, and ask of each member that he observe the due forms of
lodge behavior, for they know that "good manners and soft words have brought many
a difficult thing to pass." Brother Campbell-Everden wrote a very excellent book on
Operative Masons of the old days have often been described as rude men of calloused
hands and rough behavior. One may doubt this. The Old Charges have a great deal to
say about the Points of Fellowship, and Anderson's Constitutions, which is certainly
an excellent witness, devotes one of its six- sections and a very large amount of space
to a Mason's behavior in and out of lodge. The book is a reflection, and to a certain
extent a preservation, of customs grown ancient by 1723, and shows that for many
generations the brethren had been anxious to subdue their passions, to improve
themselves in Masonry, and to enjoy the privileges of happy social intercourse.
It is sometimes hinted that in our own lodges we are not so observant of these graces
There may be something to this charge. Our national culture is not as rich, as
complex, or as firmly established as that of the Old World. Our traditions and racial
tendencies have always tended to make light of etiquette. The Puritans and Pilgrims
who gave us the key of so much of our social behavior retained a stiff knee and kept
their hats on. Walt Whitman loved to voice this uncouthness in his poems. "I am no
dainty, dolce, affetuoso," he cried, "but rough, bearded, and to be wrestled with."
It may be that something of this spirit lingers in our lodges. We may not make a point
of addressing the chair in strict decorum because we feel that it betokens servility. It
may be that we sometimes carry on conversations during initiation ceremonies, and
enter and leave a lodge room without observing the forms, because we enjoy living in
a free and easy atmosphere.
It is more probable that other causes lie behind these lapses. The great majority of
American men are gentlemen by instinct, and the observation applies especially to
Masons, who have been elected out of the total citizenship because of their social
aptitudes. Our lodges are often very large. The official group changes rapidly. Many
Masons can't attend lodge regularly, and accordingly grow rusty. Also there is a great
deal of travelling about, not only from town to town but among the various rites, so
that an individual is often hard put to remember his cues.
These facts represent conditions, not excuses, and offer a challenge to the governors
of the Craft. Etiquette is necessary. It belongs to the lex non scripts of Freemasonry,
laws that are not written but laws all the same. It is minor jurisprudence and quite as
necessary as that required by the constitutions or enjoined by statutes and by-laws. To
see a lodge conducted with decorum, so that all its activities carry forward like the
strains of music, is a delight and a privilege. It is, in a sense, the work of
Freemasonry, which is evermore building temples in the minds and hearts of men,
and which requires that there should be "a book of ceremonies hidden away in the
THE INFANCY AND YOUTH OF SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT
A HISTORY OF MAGIC AND EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCE DURING THE FIRST
THIRTEEN CENTURIES OF OUR ERA, by Lynn Thorndike, Ph. D., Professor of
History in Western Reserve University. Two volumes, 5 3/4 X 8 1/2, xl-835 and vi-
1036 pages respectively, published by the Macmillan Company, New York, N. Y.
Price $10.00. Orders can be placed through the Book Department, National Masonic
MAGIC IS SO COMMONLY THOUGHT of as trickery, and science as fact, that to
many the very title of this work may seem selfcontradictory. If the reader will cast
aside such a prejudice he can the better do justice to this truly monumental work.
Whether we agree or disagree with the conclusions of Professor Thorndike there can
be no question about his prodigious industry and his transparent sincerity. He has
travelled far afield to peruse at first hand the original manuscripts in their dusty
treasuries in the Old and New Worlds. Not only does he freely interpret the books and
manuscripts that he has unearthed in various countries but he is frank when listing
other works to tell how little he is acquainted with their contents whenever such may
be the case. It is well for him to do this, for his book (if it had no other value) is a
remarkable work of reference, containing as it does quotations and comments upon
information stored hitherto in rare publications in several languages, often hidden
away where distance, war, and other difficulties have barred the investigator.
Such a production as this by Professor Thorndike has very much of value to us.
Ceremonies and rites, rituals and formulas of words and phrases, are all within the
scope of such an inquiry as his.
We must admit that from first to last there is no direct discussion of our ancient Craft.
In fact, only in one place do we find an allusion to the Fraternity, and that, in Vol. I,
page 183, is by no means important. The author there tells us that the architect as
described by Vitruvius, at the beginning of the Roman Empire under Julius and
Augustus Caesar, went about his work without magical procedure. We are told that
"perhaps permanent building is an honest downright open constructive art where error
is at once apparent and superstition finds little hold. If so, one wonders how there
came to be so much mystery about Freemasonry."
But we may venture to suggest that the Professor does not seem to be acquainted with
what has appeared in such works as Dr. Mackey's Encyclopaedia, and his History;
Brother George W. Speth's Builders' Rites' and Ceremonies: H. Clay Trumbull's work
on the primitive rite of the Blood Covenant; the same author's Threshold Covenant;
the essays on animal symbolism in William Andrews' Church Treasury, and other
treatises of this class. Perhaps he purposely excluded such funds of information
though the peculiar practices of religious congregations and of trade organizations
would not appear to be foreign in any way to his general inquiry.
Professor Thorndike's field of study is broad and his labors are of twenty years'
duration. He deems magic to include all occult arts and sciences, superstitions and
folk-lore, and that magicians were probably the first to experiment scientifically.
There are numerous references to our ancient friend and brother, the great Pythagoras.
Of the latter's esteem for the magical qualities of numbers there is much evidence.
The Bible, the Apocrypha, and magic have each a chapter of compelling interest,
followed by equally noteworthy comments upon the literature relating to the Apostles
and the early Fathers of the Church.
One is tempted to cite freely. There is, for example, the exposure by Hippolytus of the
frauds of magicians; the early explanation of the high priest's breastplate; the use of
phrases to ward off injury or to do harm - an ancient idea not unknown as a supposed
novelty even in these so-called up-to-date times; such mathematical diversions as
attempts to square the circle in the year 1010; the lament by Abelard in 1107 on the
national morals, that "princes were violent, prelates winebibbers, judges mercenary,
patrons inconstant, the common men flatterers, promise makers false, friends envious,
and everyone in general ambitious," a regret on things going to the dogs that reads as
familiarly as many letters to the modem newspaper.
There is the curious argument recorded that necromancy was once advocated to take
the place of rhetoric among the seven liberal arts and sciences. Then there is the
division of the mechanical arts, that, omitting theatrical performances and following
tile analogy of the seven liberal arts, was planned in the years 1272-1279 to be earth
culture, food science, medicine, costuming, armor making, architecture, and lousiness
courses. We read the claim in the first century by Pliny and several later writers that
boiling drinking water makes it more wholesome, a wise suggestion that was as
recently as 1856 rejected, though present day practice favors the pmdence of the
Roman author. There is the Latin writer, Neckam, who tells us that in the days of
antiquity the liberal arts were the monopoly of free men, the mechanical or adulterine
arts being others. We note the prayer for promoting the virtues of precious gems or
amulets. An enjoyably intimate description of people in the year 1230 confirms the
belief that humanity is singularly the same as ever, at least in prejudices. There is the
philosopher of the thirteenth century who divides science into theoretical or
speculative and practical or operative, a choice of some note to us.
The author is not convinced that every medieval scientist was persecuted by the
church but he does devote a chapter to Cecco d'Ascoli, an astrologer of some
learning, who was put to death by the Inquisition.
Professor Thorndike's closing chapter is so instructive upon the heritage of these
pioneers of science, and shows so clearly that the tendencies of our times are indebted
to them and colored by the reflection of their thought, that it might well serve us an
illuminating beacon for further voyages in these deep waters of knowledge, the
world's first steps in science.
Robert I. Clegg.
A JEWISH RABBI'S INTERPRETATION OF THE THREE DEGREES
THE EVIDENCES OF FREE-MASONRY FROM ANCIENT HEBREW RECORDS
IN THREE LECTURES ON THE THREE DEGREES, by Rabbi Brother J.H.M.
Chumaceiro. Sixth Edition. The Bloch Publishing Company, 26 East 22nd Street,
New York City. Forty-eight pages, bound in paper: thirty- five cents. Obtainable
through the Book Department, National Masonic Research Society.
This little book possesses an interest of its own aside from its intrinsic merit as an
interpretation of Freemasonry, for it was written by a Jewish Rabbi whose interest in
the Craft was almost equal to his passion for Hebrew lore. His Introduction gives an
account of Masonic "history" that is very reminiscent of Dr. Oliver, quaint and
interesting now, and, after a generation of Masonic research, valueless. The greater
part of the book is divided among three lectures on the Craft Degrees which the
author was wont to deliver to tiled audiences.
In the lecture on the E. A. Degree he devotes himself to Boaz and to Jacob's Ladder,
to the interpretation of which he brings a deal of Rabbinic tradition. He believes that
the pillar was named Boaz to honor the name of that man famous in Hebrew history
as one of the ancestors of David and Solomon.
Similarly, in his lecture on the F. C. portion, he interprets Jachin as having been so
named to memorialize a hero. In this chapter there is much matter about Shibboleth,
and the Number Seven.
The third lecture gives an interpretation of Tubal Cain, and also a long disquisition on
Hiram Abiff, which name is interpreted as meaning "noblest chief." In connection
with these paragraphs is printed a remarkable dirge, composed in the Ancient
ld[ebrew manner, supposed to have been pronounced by Solomon at the death of H.
A. There is an interpretation of The Lost Word, and there are several paragraphs on
the Emblems of the Third Degree.
In this entire volume there are few things that would not now be challenged by
competent Masonic historians and symbologists but for all that there is a winning
earnestness about it that will bring its message home to a reader, whether he be a
Hebraist or not.
THE PART PLAYED BY JEWS IN THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MASONRY
THE JEWS AND MASONRY IN THE UNITED STATES BEFORE 1810, by
Samuel Oppenheim; being a Reprint from the Publications of the American Jewish
Historical Society, No. 19, (1910), and sold by The Black Publishing Company, 26
East 22nd Street, New York City: price thirty- five cents; also by the Book
Department. National Masonic Research Society.
This treatise was submitted to The American Jewish Historical Society "as a slight
contribution to the history of the Jews in this country and as a basis for further work."
It is well to read it in connection with articles on cognate themes in the Jewish
Encyclopaedia, in which learned work it should have a place, for it is full of such
information as an encyclopedia is designed to supply.
Among the many instructive pages in this book of ninety-four pages is a rapid but
complete sketch of Moses M. Hays, the greatest, per haps, of all Jewish Masons in
this land, whose "connection with Masonry probably commenced about 1768 when
he was appointed Deputy Inspector General of Scottish Rite Masonry for North
America by Henry Andrew Francken, who had been commissioned by Stephen
Morin, of Paris, acting under the authority of Frederick II of Prussia, the Grand
Master of Scottish Rite Masons of Europe and holding jurisdiction over America."
(Page 7.) Mr. Oppenheim adds a remark: "Why such extraordinary powers were
granted to Hays, a Jew, is a question remaining to be answered."
The story, or supposed story, of the manuscript purported to have been found by Bro.
Nathan H. Gould, of Newport, R. I., in which it is said that in 1656 or 1658 certain
Jews were given "the degrees of Maconerie" is a famous crux of Masonic scholarship.
It is well ventilated on page 9 If., and the Masonic student will do well to have the
account by him for the sake of the data it contains. The author appears to be non-
"The earliest Presidential Masonic correspondence that exists on record" is a letter
written by King David's Lodge of Newport, R. I., to George Washington and signed
by Moses Seixas, as Master, and by Henry Sherburne. The lodge's letter, and
Washington's gracious reply are both given in full. A great deal is said about Moses
Seixas, who was Grand Master of Rhode Island, 1802-1809, and a very famous
Mason in his day.
Another name illustrious in the annals of Jewish Masonry is Emanuel De La Motta,
of Charleston, S. C., who was instrumental in establishing a Supreme Council for the
Northern Jurisdiction in New York in 1813, and who became its head. Isaac Da Costa
was another famous Jewish Mason in those days, "A Sublime Lodge of Perfection
was organized by him in Charleston in February, 1783, he being then Deputy
Inspector General of Masonry under appointment from Moses M. Hays." (Page 76.)
This is NOT the Da Costa who wrote the famous work on The Dionysian Artificers.
"The Supreme Council of the 33d Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite
of Freemasonry, said to be the first Supreme Council known, and superseding all
previous analogous organizations, being, it is also said, a transformation of the former
Rite of Perfection or Ancient Accepted Rite, was organized at Charleston, on May 30,
1801, by John Mitchell, Frederick Dalcho, Emanuel De La Motta, Abraham
Alexander, Major T. B. Bowen, and Israel Delichen. A list exists of the officers
composing this Council in 1802, and also of the officers and members of the different
sections or divisions of the degrees of the Scottish Rite in that year." Of this list
fourteen are known to have been Jews. "Others in the list, Dr. Frederick Dalcho, Dr.
Isaac Auld, and John Mitchell, who were claimed to have been Jews, are known not
to have been of that race.”
This Frederick Dalcho, it may be added here, was bom in London of a father who had
attained distinction in the army of Frederick the Great. Dalcho became a physician in
the British Army stationed at Charleston but later retired to private practice, and later
still (1814) became a rector in the Episcopalian church. He became very active in all
grades of Masonry, was made Grand Secretary of the A. & A. S. R., and later Grand
Commander. Owing to strife and dissension he resigned from all Masonic activity in
It is not as well known as it should be that the famous Governor Oglethorpe of
Georgia was a Mason - made in England it is believed - and one of the founders of
Solomon's Lodge, No. 1, of Savannah, which was organized in 1785. More than once
he gave official recognition and honors to the Craft. Mr. Oppenheim believes that
Governor Oglethorpe's very friendly reception of. the Jews in 1733, was due to the
fact that he and they were Masons.
Such facts as these, and many more like them, are to be found in this scholarly work.
All Masonic students, especially those who specialize in Masonic Americana, should
— o —
THE QUESTION BOX
THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
contributors writes over his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions.
Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research
Society, as such, does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over
against another, but offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction,
leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.
The Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the
Society at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited
from our members, particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
following our Study Club course. The Society is now receiving from fifty to one
hundred inquiries each week; it is manifestly impossible to publish many of them in
THE GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH AND FREEMASONRY
Has the Greek Orthodox Church pronounced against Freemasonry after the fashion of
the Roman Catholic Church? This inquiry, which comes to hand with singular
regularity, has proved (for some reason or other) strangely difficult to answer. If the
reader chances to be able to supply any information, or to suggest any possible
sources of information, his assistance will be appreciated. The query was sent to
Atlantis Greek Daily, of New York. Its manager, L. L. Lontos, submitted an
interesting reply, here given in full:
"So far as we know the Greek Orthodox Church is not in favor of secret societies,
taken as a whole, but has never made any formal pronouncement with reference to
Freemasonry. We understand that many prominent men of affairs in Greece are
Freemasons, one of them being the former Premier, Gounaris, one of the ablest men
of that country, who has been recently executed by the Revolutionary Government,
now in power in Greece."
DOES KENTUCKY HAVE UNIFORM WORK?
In visiting among lodges in Kentucky I have found the work to be somewhat different
here and there. Doesn’t the Grand Lodge of Kentucky demand Uniform Work'?
Your inquiry was referred to Bro.W.H. McDonald, of Louisville, Kentucky, whose
reply, written in his rich and friendly vein and with a touch of humor between the
lines, is here given in full. Brother McDonald is Editor and General Manager of the
Masonic Howe Journal' published semi-monthly at Louisville for the Craft in
Kentucky; it is a journal unique in make-up and appeal and always full of the warmth
of human kindness.
"The only information that I can give you is that in Kentucky we do not have what
one would call uniform work. We all do the same work, but in some instances in a
different manner to that which our neighbor does it. Some of our lodges put the work
on in elaborate style, fine paraphernalia, fine regalia, clockwork degree teams with a
lot of feathers and fuss, and maybe at the same time there is another lodge in the State
that is doing the work, giving the obligations, raising candidates with nothing except
an apron which glistens with the homemade starch that has been ironed down by the
hand of some Mason's wife or daughter, under the glow of a kerosene lamp or a few
candles scattered hither and thither. Yet, with all, the last mentioned gets the idea of
proving himself worthy of the confidence of his brethren but not in as entertaining a
manner as the first mentioned. For one hundred and twenty-two years we have been
going the gait this way.
"The membership of Kentucky is not permitted to use a cipher ritual, and, as a matter
of course, it is not permitted to be printed in long primer in any state, or any other
face type, but as a rule any well posted Mason can go into any lodge and work in any
degree. Why they can thus perform is next to a miracle. I believe that the work should
be uniform throughout the state, or as nearly so as could be, yet it costs a deal of
money to pay the expenses of a lecturer, and as a matter of course, there are few men
who would accept this place and go out at their own expense, and that too without
"The matter has been brought to the attention of the Grand Lodge on several
occasions, and at one time they attempted to have all the work uniformly done in the
state, but in this they made a flat failure and it has rested there ever since. I do not
know of any way that the Grand Lodge of Kentucky could be shown the light of this
matter nor do I know of one who could give you further light on this subject."
MOZART AS A MASON
I have a request from up state for information bearing upon Mozart. The brother says
in his letter that he would like to know more about the work of this great genius.
G. A. P., South Dakota.
You will find a complete account of Mozart as a Mason in Ars Quatuor
(7oronatorum, Vol. XXVI, page 241 if., under the caption "Bro. Mozart and some of
his Masonic Friends." Beginning on page 245 is a valuable account of his Masonic
"Mozart arrived at Vienna in 1781, and joined the Craft in 1784. His biographer, Otto
'The consideration in which the Order was held at Vienna when Mozart settled
himself there was such that it is not surprising to find him with those who were the
most clever and best educated men, and the best society of the time. He felt a want of
that serious amusement which reaches the heart and feelings, and joined the lodge....
'The want of a form of liberty based upon intellectual and moral education, which was
seriously felt at Vienna at this time, was supplied chiefly by Freemasonry, and
Mozart thought that it would be useful to him to be introduced into a circle of men
who studied great problems. The mysticism and symbolism of the Craft had its own
effect upon his impressionable nature.'
"After he joined the Craft, Freemasonry occupied a very important position in
Mozart's life. Six months after his own initiation he induced his father to become a
Mason, and shortly before his father's death he wrote to him as follows: (Mozart had
at this time been a Mason for about two years.)
'Since death is the true end and object of life, I have so accustomed myself to this true
best friend of man, that its image not only has no terrors for me but tranquilizes and
comforts me. And here I thank God that he has given me the opportunity of knowing
it as the key of all beatitude.'
"But nothing more clearly shows how seriously Mozart regarded Masonry than his
compositions for the lodge. Himself the greatest musician that has ever been a
member of the Craft, no Masonic music that has ever been written compares with his.
"The principal Masonic pieces are:
1. Die Gesellenreise, op. 468, a Masonic song, composed March 26, 1785.
2. & 3. The Opening and Closing of the Lodge. Op. 483 and 484. These were
probably composed for the first meeting of the Lodge Neugekronten Hoffnung.
4. A short cantata, Maurerfreude, op. 471, for tenor and chorus, dated April 20, 1785,
performed on the 24th of the same month, in honour of Von Born, at a special lodge
held on that day to celebrate his discovery of the method of working ores by
amalgamation. The success of this discovery was celebrated by the Lodge Zur wahren
Eintracht by a banquet, at which the cantata was performed.
5. A short Masonic cantata, said to have been written by Schikaneder, for two tenors
and a bass, with orchestral accompaniment, op. 623. This was written for the
consecration of a Masonic temple, on the 15th November, 1791. It was the last
finished composition of which Mozart conducted the performance.
6. The cantate Die ihr des unermesslichen Weltalls Schopfer ehrt, op. 619.
7. Maurerische Trauermusik, an orchestral piece, an elegy on the death of Duke
Georg August of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and Prince Franz Esterhazy, op. 477.
8. The Magic Flute.
"In the British Museum there is a manuscript collection of sixty-six Masonic songs in
German, some of which are ascribed to Mozart.
"Mozart is stated to have been initiated in the Lodge Zur Wohlletigkeit in the autumn
of 1784. Other authorities state that he was initiated in the Lodge Zur Hoffnung or the
Lodge Zur gekronten Hoffnung. As a matter of fact all these statements are in a
SIR ROBERT BADEN-POWELL NOT A MASON
One of the Craft Lodges in this city desires to know if Sir Robert Baden-Powell is a
C. B. M., Ontario.
A letter addressed to P. Colville Smith, Grand Secretary, United Grand Lodge of
England, elicited the reply "so far as I am aware, Sir Robert Baden-Powell is not a
— o —
MASONIC BODIES NAMED FOR DR. KANE
As a member of Kane Council No. 2, Royal and Select Masters of Newark, N. J., may
I add a word to M. W. Bro. G. W. Baird's autobiography of Dr. Elisha Kent Kane as it
appears in the March, 1923, issue of THE BUILDER?
Bro. Baird states that Dr. Kane's name is perpetuated in Masonry by Kane Lodge No.
252, F. & A. M., of New York, and he apparently gives that body all the credit for
initiating the movement for the Kane Memorial in Cuba.
In addition to Kane Lodge of New York we have here in New Jersey Kane Council
No. 2, R. & S. M., and also Kane Lodge No. 55, F. & A. M. in Newark, both of which
bodies are named for Dr. Kane: also an Eastern Star Chapter of that name in Newark.
The Bro. William E. Somers mentioned in the article is a member of Kane Council
and a zealous student of all matters relating to the life of Dr. Kane. It was due to his
untiring efforts that the whole matter of the memorial tablet was brought about and
the expense was borne mainly by the three Kane bodies I have mentioned.
We members of Kane Council are very proud of our illustrious namesake and I feel
that the Masonic world should know that we did our share in perpetuating his
C. N. Millington, New Jersey.
THE BUILDER has also received a letter from Brother Antonio Urbina, Secretary,
informing us that a "Kane Lodge," composed principally of Americans, was formed
at Preston, Oriente, Cuba, last June under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of the
Island of Cuba.
SIX BROTHERS RAISED IN ONE EVENING
On Monday evening, March 26th, 1923, Star of Hope, No. 430, F. & A. M., of the
State of New York, conferred the Third Degree on six sons of Wm. C. Lutz, Sr., of
that lodge, by special dispensation from Grand Master Arthur S. Tompkins. It is
claimed that this is the first time in Masonic history when six blood brothers were
raised to the Sublime Degree of Master Mason the same evening.
The Fellowcraft Team of the New York Post Office Square Club who are famous for
the presentation of their drama, The Temple Tragedy, officiated on this auspicious
Fourteen hundred brethren crowded the Brooklyn Masonic Temple to witness the
Richard S. Power, New York.
PROFESSOR KIRSOPP LAKE WRITES ABOUT MITHRAISM
I have read with much interest Bro. Haywood's article on Mithraism in THE
BUILDER for May, and liked it very much. The only thing which I feel inclined to
add is that I think you might bring out a little more plainly the fact that in Mithraism,
as in all the Mystery religions, there seems to have been the underlying belief in the
attainment of immortal life through death. The whole point of most of these Mysteries
is the belief that the Lord of the Cult was a supernatural being who either had been a
god who became man or was a man endowed with some supernatural power which
enabled him to win his way through all kinds of difficulties, usually including a
painful death, to the goal of immortal and divine happiness. The initiate, who
reproduced symbolically the experience of the Lord, really shared in the privileges
which the Lord had obtained. Immortality through death by repeating the experience
of the Lord is, I think, the formula which most nearly covers all Mystery religions, or,
as it would perhaps be better to call them, sacramental religions. For, as you know,
the word mystery is the usual Greek word for sacrament and sacramentum became the
usual Latin word for mystery. K. Lake, Massachusetts.
Readers will be interested to know that Bro. Kirsopp Lake, of the Divinity School of
Harvard University, is Chaplain of The Harvard Lodge, as described by Bro. Guy H.
Holliday in THE BUILDER for April. Bro. Lake is a man of incredible learning who
has specialized in the field covered by Mithraism and other Ancient Mysteries. Ye
Editor has long lived in hope of enticing Professor Lake into the ranks of Masonic
scholars where his shining gifts and extraordinary attainments would prove of
inestimable value to the Craft.
WISE WORDS ABOUT MASONIC ARCHITECTURE
Among the many letters received in response to the editorial, "Expert Wanted! A
Masonic Consulting Architect," printed in THE BUILDER, March, 1923, page 84,
here is one of peculiar interest. Brother Osgood is one of the two members of the firm
of Osgood and Osgood of Grand Rapids, Michigan, consulting architects for the
George Washington National Memorial, now in process of erection at Alexandria,
"The subject of Masonic temple design is as basic and scientific as is the designing of
any other specific type of building, and yet I think it is a fair statement to say that as a
group there are more existing failures in Masonic temples erected today than in any
other special class of buildings, such as schools, hospitals, churches, theatres, etc. The
question that interests us is why is it that this condition exists There are many reasons
but, for fear of overloading this letter, I will give the one big explanation which can
be summed up in a few words, namely the employment of architects who have had no
experience on such work professionally, or from the standpoint of a Masonic
executive and worker in various bodies.
"If committees would generally only use the same sound business judgment in
employing an architect that they do in matters pertaining to their own individual
business success, this situation would be different. But they generally employ an
architect not because of his qualifications in, or knowledge of the subject, but because
he just happens to be an architect and lives in the town where the building is
contemplated, is a member of the Craft, is 'one of the boys'; and all this, added to the
fact that the money is to be raised locally, makes it difficult to tell this architect that
the committee is more responsible to their brother constituents in producing a one
hundred per cent efficient Masonic working building, than they are in advancing his
ambitions or desires. Mr. Architect feels hurt if his fellows for one moment even
suggest his inability to handle the problem, for is he not an architect ? does he not
belong to the Fraternity ? is he not a citizen and a supporter of the project? Of course
he is but, as a matter of fact, this Mr. Architect all during his professional career has
been designing residences, or factories, or banks, or anything else than Masonic
temples. This home job is his first and in most cases his last Masonic temple, but he
wants it and moves heaven and earth to stop it from going outside, just to save his
professional status. He has very little knowledge to start with and when through, he
has done what the committee has told him to do, and thus has acted in the capacity of
a draftsman and not as an advisor.
"Now I am quite sure if these same committees were to have a hospital problem on
their hands, they would say to themselves 'the thing to do first is to find some
architect or firm of architects who from training and experience are specialists in
hospital construction, for we shall be held responsible for the success of our project,
and those advancing the money have a right to demand the last word in hospital
arrangement, operation and upkeep.' There is as much logic in thinking that the
average designer, or worse yet, industrial engineer, can give these results on any
specialized type of building, as it is to consider the employment of a veterinarian to
remove a human appendix. They all can make a stab at it, but either the public or the
patient takes the chances. The question of responsibility is with those who do the
employing and to me that responsibility is far greater to the constituents represented
than to an individual or small group. A man who has never designed a Masonic
temple has to start from the beginning and build up his knowledge and doesn't know
what it ought to cost or worse still what it will cost.
"The building of a Masonic temple is a man's job and the right results can be obtained
provided the same good business principles are used that would make any business a
"Show me the first architect who is big enough, and is interested enough in the
Masonic Fraternity (if he has had no experience in this kind of work) to say, Why I
guess I know as much about the requirements of the problem as any other architect in
town, but 1 don't think any of us can give the results that you should have. I will be
pleased to do this work but I advise the employment of a consulting architect to aid
me, a man who knows this game, and together we will give the results that you have a
right to expect! Show me such a man, and you have found an architect worthy of a
place in his profession and of membership in our Fraternity.
S. Eugene Osgood, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
WANTED: INFORMATION ABOUT CORNER STONES
I am compiling a list of important buildings here and abroad of which the corner
stones have been laid by Masons. Brethren who can furnish me with any information
of this kind will please send direct to me. C. E. Krause,
338 West Main St.,
MASONIC LODGES OF THE CHEROKEE NATION
The oldest Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons in the present state of Oklahoma is
Cherokee Lodge, No. 10, originally 21. It was flourishing in 1852 under the
jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Arkansas. The Cherokee Nation of Indians gave to
this lodge and to the Sons of Temperance two lots in the town of Talequah, the capital
of the Cherokee Nation. In 1868 this lodge was discontinued on the rolls of the Grand
Lodge of Arkansas but with other Indian lodges it continued to work until 1877 when
it received a new charter under the Grand Lodge of Indian Territory.
Other lodges are Fort Gibson Lodge No. 36, chartered by Arkansas, November 5,
1850, dropped from Arkansas 1868, chartered by the Grand Lodge of Indian
Territory, 1878, as Alpha Lodge, No. 12; and Flint Lodge, No. 74, chartered under
Arkansas, 1853, dropped 1867, and again chartered as Flint Lodge, No. 11, under
Many Cherokees and other Indians participated in the inauguration of the Grand
Lodge of Indian Territory in 1874. Of the Cherokee Indians the following have been
Most Worshipful Grand Masters of the Grand Lodge of Indian Territory: Harvey
Lindsey, 1882; Florian Nash, 1885, 1886, 1887; Leo E. Bennett, 1889 to 1892; and
Wilson O. Burton in 1904. Under the jurisdiction of Oklahoma, after the absorption
of the Territory, O'Lonzo Conner was Grand Master in 1919. Leo E. Bennett was
Grand Treasurer from 1899 to 1917.
These facts are gleaned from the History of the Cherokee Indians, by Emmet Starr,
(The Warden Co., Oklahoma City, 1921). Arthur C. Parker, New York.
FREEMASONRY IN MEXICO
On Sunday October 1, 1922, the writer preached in the Masonic Temple at Tampico,
Mexico, and at 6 P. M. on Monday, October 2, constituted Tampico Commandery
No. 1 Knights Templar and installed its officers, acting under a Dispensation from the
Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of the United States. At 8 P. M. the hall was
opened to Freemasons and their friends who listened for an hour to an address on
Freemasonry. The Tampico Masonic Temple is valued at $125,000, and the Lodge,
Chapter, and Commandery are prospering.
From Tampico I went to Mexico City where I gave an hour's address to Auahuac
Lodge on Thursday evening October 6. Saturday October 7, 1 met with Toltec Lodge
and took a part in the work of the Third Degree; giving the Lectures and the Charges.
Toltec Lodge was chartered by the Grand Lodge of Missouri forty years ago. The two
lodges in the city and the one at Tampico are subordinate to the York Grand Lodge,
which is composed of eighteen lodges with some nine hundred members. This Grand
Lodge is recognized by the Grand Lodge of Missouri and there is no good reason why
any American Grand Lodge should hesitate to recognize it, as it holds to the
fundamentals of Freemasonry according to our standards. There is another Grand
Lodge with headquarters in the City of Mexico which we ought not to recognize, as it
does not require what we regard as essential.
C. H. Briggs, P. G. M., Missouri.
TUBERCULOSIS SANATORIUM COMMISSION ASKS FOR SUGGESTIONS
Masonry had its beginnings among the men who were builders of things material - the
homes, temples and cathedrals of the old world. Masonry developed into an
organization of men striving to build things spiritual, to reconstruct the hearts, minds
and lives of men, to change their ideals just as the Craft had changed from Operative
to Speculative Masonry. The time has now come for Masonry to give some thought to
the building of things physical, to the reconstruction of the broken bodies of men.
The business man who goes on year after year without an inventory is now
considered a poor manager. Yet Masonry has never made an inventory of its building
material - its membership. How many of us die each year of some preventable disease
? How many are inmates of insane asylums, without hope ? How many of us are out
of employment? How mane of us are about to fail in business ? These and many other
questions should be included in our "stock taking," not from idle curiosity, but to get
facts that may enable the Craft to go to work intelligently, and thereby put into
practice some of its great and beautiful teachings.
It has been estimated by the National Tuberculosis Association that there are 42,300
Masons in the United States suffering from tuberculosis at all times, and that 4,700 of
them die every year from this disease. Up to the present time, little has been done for
the relief of these brethren. No matter how wealthy a man may be when tuberculosis
claims him he can spend all of his fortune seeking health. How about the average man
whose income stops when he is compelled to stop work? Unless the hand of fraternal
assistance is extended he will die in poverty and leave a heritage of debt and
pauperism to his family.
Help is freely given when a local lodge finds one of the brethren in distress. But the
average lodge cannot carry a brother for a year or more and spend one or two
thousand dollars upon each case. Hospitals for such cases are limited and expensive.
While the charity of the Fraternity is an inexhaustible mine of purest gold, yet it is not
scientifically worked and through the lack of organization very little has been
accomplished for the care and cure of consumptive brethren.
A Commission has been appointed by the Grand Lodges of Texas, New Mexico and
Arizona to study this subject and to make some recommendations for the
establishment of a sanatorium for sick brethren. Many hundreds of such cases come
to the Southwest every year seeking health and many become a charge upon the Blue
Lodges of this section. The problem has become so serious that united action is
The members of the Commission will welcome suggestions from readers of THE
BUILDER of plans for financing the construction and operation of a National
Masonic Tuberculosis Sanatorium. Send your communications to me.
R. J. Newton, 2130 River Ave., San Antonio, Texas.
— o —
YE EDITOR'S CORNER
Do you recall the cut of "The Cycle of Cathay" that appeared on page 37 of the
February issue? It is interesting to know that the Northern Pacific Railroad published
an exceedingly interesting little booklet on that ancient design called "The Story of
the Monad." I have a' few copies at hand to give away.
Several brethren wrote to chastise us for adopting the practice of carrying over the-tail
ends of articles to the rear pages. The thing was a temporary expedient adopted as a
part of a plan for transforming the make-up of the magazine. About that more anon.
* * *
Have you a Masonic burial ground in your community ?. If so please send us its name
and location, along with the address of the official in charge. Ever and anon some
brother writes to make some inquiry about such things.
* * *
These are good days for hiking - it is my favorite sport but any kind of weather is
good for the kind of jaunt described in "Who'll Walk With Me?"
And who will walk a mile with me
Along life's weary way?
A friend whose heart has eyes to see
The stars shine out o'er the darkening lea,
And the quiet rest at the end of the day -
A friend who knows and dares to say
The brave, sweet words that cheer the way
When he walks a mile with me.
With such a comrade, such a friend,
I fain would walk till journey's end,
Through summer sunshine, winter rain,
And then, Farewell! We shall meet again.
- Henry Van Dyke.